Part 3, pp. 137-232


THERE were a few settlers on the north bank of the Fox previous to 1848, but they were not of the class termed pioneers, according to the common acceptation of the terms; they had all left for other parts with the exception of the Grignon family, a branch of which still remains upon the old homestead which to early settlers was known as the “White Herron.” A Mr. Thurber (Ezra) and wife settled in the spring of 1848 in what is now the third ward of Appleton near the big cut on the Milwaukee, Lake Shore & Western railroad, but like the wild geese they soon sought a more genial clime. The real settlement of Appleton should be credited to the Methodist Episcopal Church of this state.

* * The first improvement, in what is now the city was the clearing of some ten acres on the northwest quarter of section 26 in the season of 1848 and the sowing the same to wheat by James Blood, now of Kansas. In August, 1848, Col. H. L. Blood, opened a road to what was known as the old Oneida road and commenced drawing lumber from the Oneida settlement for the preparatory department of the college. About this time Robert R. Bateman and Rev. A. B. Randall had made claims of land in the immediate vicinity and erected the necessary buildings for establishing said claims. According to the best information to be obtained the settlers came in the following. order: About August 25, 1848, came John F. Johnston and his wife Janet with their one child Henry. Their shanty was on what is now Johnston street, block 29, Second ward. That was the nucleus around which gathered the settlers of Appleton. None were turned away from that door. Their dwelling was hotel, hospital, church and Sabbath school room. Next came your humble servant (J. S. Buck) and wife. We pitched our tent on the west half of the northeast quarter of section 27 on the first or second day of September of the same year. We paddled our own canoe from Neenah down through little lake Butte des Morts and landed at the White Herron and plodded our way to our little shanty in the wilderness which I had erected some days before with lumber that I rafted down through the lake and landed at the point now known as Lehman’s. It was said to have been the first lumber ever rafted from Neenah to that point. In the same month came Rev. A. B. Randall and wife and settled at what is now the corner of Drew and North streets. During this time the contract had been let for building the basement of the preparatory department of the College to W. T. Bailey and the superstructure to William McGregor; and the first blow of preparation upon the site of the future university was struck by the Rev. William H. Sampson who with bush-hook and axe made smooth the way that others might walk therein. The first sermon preached in Appleton was by Mr. Sampson, followed by the Rev. A. B. Randall and Rev. Reeder Smith. Then came John P. Parish, William Blake and their families. Then came McGregor and Waterson and the late J. Cortland Smith who was followed by his brother Peter V. Smith, now a. resident of Grand Chute. Charles Wolcott came about this time. He raided the town in mid-winter, captured every woman, placed them upon an ox sled and proceeded westward, but through some means they escaped and returned to their homes. Afterward it was reported that Charlie said that twelve women on one ox-sled were too big a job of sleigh riding for him. Rev. Sampson moved his family into Squire Bateman’s claim shanty and Rev. Reeder Smith and family came to board with him sometime during the winter of 1848-9. Mr. Bateman moved his family here in December, 1848, or January, 1849. I think the first house that was built within the present city limits was built by myself of logs in the months of September and October, 1848. Col. H. L. Blood brought his family here in the spring of 1849 and opened a store on the site now occupied by the First National Bank. The Preparatory department of the college was erected on the third day of July, 1849, on the spot now occupied by George White’s house and on the fourth the settlers held an old-fashioned picnic celebration in the building with John Stephen as reader and Rev. A. B. Randall as orator of the day. Among the settlers who arrived with their families in 1849, were Daniel W. Briggs, Dr. Samuel E. Beach, Deacon Wait Cross, John McPherson, Col. Theodore Conkey, Tracy P. Bingham, W. S. Warner, John H. Hart and James M. Phinney. Among the young men arriving were George H. Myers, P. H. Smith, Anson Ballard, Erasmus Beach and John Moody. Tracy P. Bingham erected the first sawmill this year near the present Ames Paper and Pulp Mill. The first legally laid out highway was the state road from Menasha via Appleton to Bruce’s Mill, now Stephensville; the commissioners being William Rork, James Blood and J. S. Buck, with John Stephens as surveyor. The town of Grand Chute was organized this year from the town of Kaukauna, taking in what is now Grand Chute, Greenville, Dale, and Hortonia. On October 9, 1849, George H. Myers, the first lawyer, located here. One of the newcomers landed a barrel of whisky from a Durham boat from Neenah, but in the morning the barrel was found empty. If fervent prayers could have tapped the barrel Rev. W. H. Sampson might have been the guilty party as he was a passenger on the same boat; but the owner insisted that the whisky did not spring a leak, but its passage was facilitated by human hands and yet he never charged it upon Myers notwithstanding the circumstances were against Myers. The first wedding service was performed by your humble servant; the contracting parties were a Mr. Lockwood and Miss Webley.” –(Address of J. S. Buck before the Outagamie County Pioneer Association, February 22, 1877. –Post, March 8, 1877).

“We commenced sometime in August, 1848, to get out timber for the frame of the Lawrence Institute, the predecessor of Lawrence University and also cut a road through to intersect the Duck Creek and Neenah road which was the only road in the south half of the county. We opened it to Polly’s Corners (do you recollect where it was?) and thence to the quarter stake between sections 4 and 5. On the 25th of August I took the ox team and started for Duck Creek for the first load of lumber leaving the men –James Blood, W. D. Pierce, Carter, Bass and Converse– to complete the road cutting and connection and what was of the greatest importance to bridge some of the runs and low places so that I could get along with my load. That trip is one of the events of those days that. I have not forgotten. The first stop I made was at ‘General Jackson’s’ clearing, in what is now Freedom, where I stopped to get a drink of water (Jackson was a colored man). Here I will say that I always stopped at the general’s on my trips to the Oneida settlement or Duck Creek and he was always faithful to return my visits. I am glad to hear that the ninety odd year old veteran still lives. I got through to Duck Creek and loaded up with 700 feet of boards on the first day. Next morning I started for home; got along well till I passed Hines’ place in Freedom, when I found my wagon stuck fast in the mud. Hines came with his team and helped me through. about half a mile of low wet ground which the rains had made almost impossible. My next cotillion was when within a mile of St. Marie’s, I tried to get around a fallen tree and broke the wagon tongue. It was then night, so I went and staid,with St. Marie’s folks till morning. Old settlers will remember that family. Next morning they helped me repair the wagon and one of the boys took their team and helped me through. On coming to the runs that were to be bridged, I found no bridges, the mosquitoes having driven the men out of the woods. But I got through to the shanty, or rather the foundation of it, about 1 o’clock p.m. Col. H. L. Blood had just got there from Green Bay with a load of my goods; it was 12×38 feet so my 700 feet of boards were not enough. Therefore we laid 12 to 18 feet of floor at one end, then sided it up about three feet to keep out the pigs and cattle and the balance of the lumber went for the roof which extended far enough to cover the bed and table. Mrs. Johnston was an invalid, boarding at Menasha. She took a canoe and came on, bound to arrive that day. She found my team waiting at the old steamboat landing (now Lehman’s). They came along nicely until the rise at (now) Willy’s Bluff, when the tail gate came out and everything slid to the ground. She had her baby (Hank) eight months old and Ann Eliza Northrup (now Mrs. Pound’s) and they started on foot to find the house we were building. They followed the trail to near where Alexander Edgar afterwards built his shanty, when they stopped, tired out, to rest. They heard the click of our hammer and called for help. We brought them in and spread out a bed for Mrs. J. to rest on. It was now about 5 o’clock p. m. We hurriedly put up a stove and bed and made a table and some benches. It was our style that the McGillans of Center afterward took for their patterns. We got our first supper about 7 o’clock. We had the first night, besides our own family, Ann Eliza Northrup, James Blood, D. W. Pierce, Carter, Bass, Converse and I think R. S. Bateman and J. S. Buck. We got all our supplies from Neenah –brought everything down in boats from Winnebago rapids to the landing and then packed it home. Many a sack of flour and quarter of beef have I carried up and down those bluffs for my family. * * We had no church privileges and some of the men spent their Sundays hunting or fishing. Bass was a great hunter but under Mrs. J.’s influence they all gave up their Sunday hunting. Bass said to her that he should never hunt on Sunday again. On Sunday morning he was telling Mrs. J. how he formerly spent his Sabbaths; he said ‘No temptation would induce me to hunt again, or ever fire a gun on Sunday, not if a deer should come into the yard.’ Just then a horse at the door pricked up his ears and instantly three deer came along. They stopped not more than six rods away. Quick as thought off want Bass’ pious resolution, his gun and all the deer. He missed them all and a more crestfallen and disappointed fellow I never saw. That fall we were often surrounded by the wolves and sometimes they seemed very near, but they were sure to keep out of reach of the hunters. One very dark night they set up a terrible howling just west of the house. J. S. Buck was not at home and my wife’s sister Adaline, had gone over to stay with Mrs. Buck. My wife was very anxious about them and forgetful of her own danger urged me to go to their rescue. I was not the least bit afraid if I do say it, but being captain of the home guard, duty demanded me to hold the fort and I did. Christmas eve we celebrated at Ezra Thurber’s. Newman Blood took the oxen and sled, put in a good lot of straw and loaded in all the men, women and children of the settlement, and a jollier load could not be found that Christmas anywhere in America. The spirit of St. Nicholas possessed us all, even the oxen.” –(Letter of J. F. Johnston read at the old settlers’ meeting, August, 1878).

The fourth of July, 1849, was celebrated by the citizens of Appleton “on Fox river, in Wisconsin.” “Doubtless you need not be informed this is a town wearing the honored name of Samuel Appleton, Esq., of Boston, and prospectively enshrined in the hearts of western people as the seat of a university cognomened Lawrence, a name immortal for benevolence. I hasten now to speak of the arrangements and celebrations and leave you and your readers to judge if Appleton, Wisconsin, not yet of twelve months’ growth, does not deserve a passing notice in your columns. During the third, one of the finest frames for a public institution, that I have for a long time inspected, was in due order and safety, placed on a stone basement designed for the preparatory building of the univerity. It is of three stories, 70 feet long and 30 wide, having four handsome gables, the views from which in every direction particularly of the river is most magnificent. A temporary ascent and floor to the second story were provided for the accommodation of the feast. The tables which were entirely submitted to the control of the ladies, spread before a hundred guests a free entertainment alike ample, neat, tasteful and elegant. The agent and the principal of the institution were absent. John Stevens, Esq., the first speaker, poured forth a strain of eloquence in his usual dignified and graceful manner. Next followed a racy and pertinent address from Rev. Randall that elicited much applause. This was succeeded by repeated volleys of musketry discharged by patriots who had previously taken their station amid the framework of the cupola. Then succeeded the free discussion of the delicate viands and beverages and the toasts, among the latter being “The Day We Celebrate;” “The Ordinance of 1787 ;” “The Flag oI Our Union;” ‘The Flag of Our State;” “The State of Wisconsin;” “The Citizens of Appleton ;” “The Lawrence University of Wisconsin.” — (Cor. Green Bay Advocate, July 19, 1849).

“Leaving Kaukalin we passed over for the most of the way a beautiful country to Grand Chute –a location which is making a good deal of noise just now and certainly with much reason. I never saw so striking an instance of wresting civilization from the wilderness. The grass has not ceased growing under houses and stores, turning with life and business. The carpenter’s hammer clangs with a singular echo from the forest at hand and the first wonder which occurred to me was how they could keep the trees from falling on the houses when they began to clear –for felling and clearing seem to be a secondary consideration here. Families have thrown together temporary shanties and occupy them until Providence and carpenters furnish them better. The “Preparatory Department” at Appleton is certainly a fine building and we ‘kinder thought’ what sort of a building the Institute would be if this was only a tender to it. Success to Appleton if it does patronize the Tribune. A half mile or so above an equally astounding specimen of Yankee enterprise exhibits itself at Martin’s. It struck us as the most beautiful site, yet a flying visit did not enable us to examine closely. A fine mill with a wing dam is in course of construction and nearly finished. A good tavern is already established, numbers of buildings are going up, and if the place increases in the same ratio for a year longer, it will rival if not eclipse the others. Lawesburg is an extension of Appleton northward and here are the same features –the same enterprise. I noticed some first class buildings going up. In fact I can’t tell you half about the progress of this valley. It is beyond all description. I will try again after I get home and in the meantime I heartily wish you could make regular visits every week and see and hear for yourself. You would like the people and I hope they would like you; they are proverbially a reading and, of course, intelligent community. The health of these towns has been excellent during the season. Not a case of cholera has appeared. The crops have turned out well and I hear no complaint of potato rot. The army worm has done some damage.”- (Editorial correspondence, Green Bay Advocate, September 6, 1849).

In October, 1849, W. S. Warner kept the Appleton House. In 1850, Cyrus Jackson built a hotel on the Grand Chute plat. Theodore Conkey, A. B. Boner, J. W. Boner, T. P. Bingham, James Hanchett, Mr. Noort, Ever Grant, Mr. Van Luthner, Mr. Quentyman, O. W. Clark, L. L. Hulce, A. S. Sanborn, John Jewett, E. C. Foot, H. C. Sheenin and his brother, several named McDill, J. W. Letchen, Mr. Ladd, William Lean, James Lean and A. M. Tanner were residents in 1850. –(Judge Myers in Post, February 26, 1885).

Thus the first house built in Appleton was erected in 1848; the first sermon preached was in 1849; and the first mail arrived in 1849; a post office was established the same year; the first child born in Appleton arrived in 1849; the first saw-mill in Appleton was set in operation in 1850; the first term of the county court was held in Appleton in July, 1852, Judge P. H. Smith presiding; “No business appearing.” The first circuit court was held in Appleton in October, 1852. Judge T. O. Howe presiding. The first grist-mill to commence operation in Appleton was in 1853. –(Crescent, June 20, 1857).

“The work at Grand Chute was not let, because the bids in the aggregate amounted to more than the board was allowed to expend at this time.” — (Green Bay Advocate, November 15, 1849).

The act of February 7, 1850, authorized E. W. Davis, Reeder Smith and N. P. Stevens to build a bridge across Fox river at Appleton on block 15; they were incorporated as the Appleton Bridge Company and the capital was $3,000.

. “All that part of the town plat of the village of Appleton, described on the recorded plat thereof as the south half of block 10, the south half of block 11, blocks 12, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23 and 24 is hereby vacated. Approved February 7, 1850.”

The act of February 7, 1850, provided as follows: “All that part of the town plat of the village of Appleton described on the recorded plat thereof as the south half of block 10, south half of block 11, blocks 12, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23 and 24 is hereby, vacated.

The old Crescent Hotel, which had been erected in 1850 by W. S. Warner and occupied by him as a tavern for some time, was finally moved in 1868 from its location at the corner of College avenue and Morrison streets and on rollers taken in two sections to Edwards street.

In 1850 all the lumber used in the shanties of what became Outagamie county was brought with great expense and difficulty from Duck Creek, Wrightstown and Neenah. In that year if a family obtained a bag of corn and wished it ground into meal, they were obliged to take it on their backs to Neenah. In that year not a pound of flour was manufactured in all Outagamie county. — (Crescent, January 23, 1870.)

“Appleton. –An Indian was accidentally shot in this place yesterday, but the bullet was extracted and he is now getting better. He and a boy were playing with a pistol when it went off in the hands of the boy. A young man was drowned here last week while building a foot bridge across the river.” — (Green Bay Advocate Cor., January 16, 1851).

The act of March 5, 1852, incorporated the Appleton Water Power Company, the incorporators being Perry H. Smith, Anson BallardJackson Tibbits, Thomas Butterfield, and Frederick Packard. The capital stock could not exceed $100,000; the objects were manufacturing and milling and could own and construct dams, canals, reservoirs, waterways, flumes or races, own lands, etc.

“Boston, July 13, 1853. –Samuel Appleton, Esq., a wealthy merchant of this city died last evening.” “Our town was named in honor of this much esteemed gentleman.” –(Crescent, July 16, 1853.)

“Our Village Cemetery. –It seems that the place of burial for the dead of Appleton is owned by a cemetery association. We are pleased to find it occupying such a beautiful location. We now suggest to the directors or trustees that the grounds should be laid out into lots with suitable walks and alleys and the brush cleared off leaving a sufficient quantity of trees for ornament and shade; and the whole enclosed by a neat and substantial fence.” –(Crescent, July 16, 1853.)

The Appleton corporation officers in 1853 were as follows: J. F. Johnston, president; A. W. Bowen, C. E. Bement, S. Ryan Jr., G. Lanphear, W. H. Sampson and Wait Cross, trustees; James Gilmore, assessor; J. M. Eggleston, treasurer; Daniel Huntley, marshal; J. M. Phinney, clerk.

“Appleton, Outagamie county, Wisconsin, is an incorporated village situated on the right bank of Fox river, three miles below Lake Winnebago and 30 miles from Green Bay; it contains a population of fifteen hundred; is the county seat and the location of Lawrence University; its hydraulic power is equal to any in the United States, the aggregate fall being nearly 40 feet; it is in direct line between Manitowoc on Lake Michigan, and the nearest accessible point on Wolf river (a stream navigable by steamers) and will soon be connected each way by plank roads in progress of construction. It is in the heart of a healthy and fertile country well adapted to grain and grass and is rapidly filling up with intelligent and industrious settlers.” — (Appleton Crescent, June 18, 1853).

Appleton in Outagamie county, town of Grand Chute, on section 26, town 21, range 17 east, is about 125 miles northeast of Madison. The Lawrence Institute is located at this place and the surrounding country is very healthy and fertile. The population is 800; 275 dwellings, 10 stores, 5 hotels, 4 sawmills, a paper factory. It is situated on the lower Fox river at Grand Chute rapids, 30 miles from Green Bay. Its hydraulic advantages are equal to any in the United States, the aggregate fall being 40 feet.” –(Wisconsin Gazetteer, 1853). “Dr. Hunt has been misinformed as to the population. Appleton contains at least 1,500. Accessions to its population are being made almost every day. It is destined to be a much larger place than any inland point in Northern Wisconsin with possibly the exception of Oshkosh.” –(Crescent, July 16, 1853).

“The Upper Town. –That portion of our town which lies south and west of the courthouse presents marked signs of improvement. Conkey, Bowen and Martin own the most of the town plat and water power and are selling the former and leasing the latter upon the most reasonable terms. The water power is beyond doubt the best in the state, already three good sawmills, one sash factory, one lath factory, one turning machine shop where wood is manufactured into every conceivable shape and a cabinet shop, are driving an immense trade. A paper mill will soon be in full operation; also a large grist mill four stories high and with four run of stone (built by 0. W. Clark the best millwright in the state) will commence work in a few weeks. A heavy store will probably be established in the vicinity of Bowen’s Hotel this fall. There is a first rate opening for an iron foundry, a chair and pail factory and an oil mill. * * The Roads. –We are pleased to see that the road overseers of the county have been doing good service in the improvement of the roads. It is a matter of the highest importance to have good roads to the back settlements. * * H. A. Phinney has one of the most extensive stocks of goods of every variety to be found in town. * *” –(Crescent, July, 1853).

The Crescent was first issued in January, 1853, and was published by Ryan & Company, and issued from the Crescent building on College avenue; subscription price $1.50 a year in advance. Rolla A. Law was political editor. Either from the start, or a little later, Henry S. Eggleston was connected with the Crescent, because in September when he assumed the duties of postmaster he was obliged, it was announced, to sever his relation with the paper. Among the residents in 1853 were the following: Robert Morrow dry goods, O. H. Clark millwright, W. S. Warner dry goods, John H. Hart furniture, G. W. Woodward dry goods, D. T. Atwell blacksmith, Eggleston & Robinson sash factory, E. Smith tailor, Edwin Atkinson paper mills, G. W. Gregory architect, W. B. Mitchell cabinet shop (Grand Chute), T. P. Bingham justice of the peace. Lawrence University, third term of the preparatory department, March 17, 1853, William H. Sampson, principal; Bowen’s hotel in Grand Chute, kept by A. B. Bowen, near the steamboat landing, Grand Chute, near the Courthouse; National hotel, Appleton, kept by Mr. Hanna, but he was succeeded this year by Mr. McKaller; Crescent hotel by W. S. Warner.

In February, 1854, Mr. Paddock of Appleton killed a large bald-headed eagle that measured 7 feet 2 inches from tip to tip of the wings. It was mounted and placed in the Zoological cabinet of Lawrence University.

In the spring the trade at Appleton was enormous. Many settlers had located in the back districts and large quantities of wheat, pork and grain of various kinds were brought here to market and the merchants did a thriving business. At this time everything indicated that Appleton and vicinity was soon to become a populous and prosperous district. G. W. Woodward began the erection of a large brick block of stores, four stories high, on the north side of College avenue opposite Hanna’s block. The brick were made near town. In the spring of 1854, an amendment to the law of 1853 providing for the incorporation of Appleton as a village was passed. The amendment legalized the election in 1853 and extended the powers of the trustees to the construction of sidewalks and otherwise. The previous law was lame in this respect.

“From the gathering of lumber, stone, sand, etc., and the merry clink of hammer and mallet, we opine that this will be a great season for building in Appleton. Work was commenced on the new Methodist Episcopal Church on Monday last. The courthouse is sufficiently completed to enable the April term of the circuit court to be held therein. The county jail is completed and ready for the prisoners now confined at Depere. Mr. McNeil is moving into the Edgarton House, where he will keep an extensive boarding house. The paper mill has been running day and night the last few weeks and has more orders than it can fill. All the saw mills are busy manufacturing lumber for immediate use. The sash factories, planing mills, lath mill, edge-tool factory, turning lathes and saleratus factories and mechanics generally are doing a thriving business. The flouring mills are indulging in considerable competition which attracts farmers from all parts of the country. An extensive tannery is soon to be erected by Mr. Sikes. The work on the university has been resumed and will be hurried forward with all possible dispatch. The river improvement at this place is in the right hands and will soon receive a new impetus, the contractors having advertised for six hundred laborers. There is no unhealthy speculation in town property, nor attempted swindling of eastern capitalists by the issuing of bonds for fancy railroads. Appleton rests upon a basis as solid as the granite rock. It has all the elements requisite to sustain a large industrial population. It already possesses a moral, energetic and enterprising population which is receiving continual accessions from the best of New York and New England society and at no distant day must be the most wealthy manufacturing city of Wisconsin. We have a never-failing water power of 40 feet fall, capable of accommodating 150 run of stone and there is room enough for all other machinery. Our university is far ahead of any collegiate institution in this state in all its appointments and facilities for educating the mass of the people. The spring opens most promisingly and we all feel confident that it will be a prosperous season for our town and county.”–(Crescent, March 30, 1854).

Early in 1854 it was announced that the following improvements would be made during the season at Appleton: Lawrence University would spend $30,000 in buildings; the students themselves would spend in Appleton about $15,000, the attendance being about 160. In April the attendance was 190. The River Improvement Company was expected to spend $45,000. Plank and other roads would spend about $13,000. Churches, dwelling houses, public buildings, stores and the water power would probably spend about $20,000. It was thus estimated that the expenditure would reach about $125,000 during the summer of 1854. Appleton at this time claimed a population of 1,500, but actually had about 1,100.

In March there was much rejoicing in Appleton and vicinity over the passage of the bill prohibiting tne sale of liquor in Wisconsin. Although it was provided that the question should be again submitted to the people for ratification, it was acknowledged to be a great step in advance and as, therefore, heralded with great enthusiasm by this community. There was much complaint in Appleton in April over the shin plasters that had been put in circulation in this community. Evidently the worthless money came from Green Bay where it was put in circulation by some outside banking institution. They were called Metropolitan shin plasters and the Green Bay Advocate declared that they were promptly redeemed when presented at that place. This was not found to be the case, however, by the people of Appleton, according to the Crescent.

In April there was great demand for lots upon which to build residences in Appleton. Fox river valley had become celebrated and the influx of settlers seeking permanent locations was very great. It was started by the Crescent that if some wealthy man should invest $50,000 in town lots he could lmake a large fortune by selling them later to actual residents. At this time another lath mill and a chair factory were projected at Appleton. The water power was a magnet to draw manufacturers to this locality. Many new merchants appeared and a dozen or more extra stores were established this year. The Crescent said that Appleton was now the business center for a population of 10,000. That paper said April 29, that for several weeks past about 300 strangers had come here and made inquiries for permanent locations. So valuable was the water power regarded abroad that the improvement bonds sold in New York City at par in the spring of 1854.

In the issue of the Crescent of May 27, 1854, is a full description of Appleton from which the following is summarized:

The incorporated village was really settled in three different locations. Six months after the village plat of Appleton was made, Grand Chute lying to the west and really adjoining it, but separated by deep ravines as well as a dense forest, was commenced at the point opposite the magnificent water-fall and soon grew to be a busy point. About the same time land lying to the east of Appleton was laid off into a village, and named Lawesburg by George W. Lawe. Thus, upon the present city site were three villages. All were finally united under the name Appleton, designated thus in honor of Samuel Appleton, a son-in-law of Mr. Lawrence. The village thus started grew rapidly. In the spring of 1850 a wing dam was constructed on Fox river and a mill erected farther up the stream and later several saw mills were put in operation. In the fall of 1850 the pioneer ladies of Appleton organized as a sewing society and soon raised money enough to build plank sidewalks on College avenue.Their commendable zeal was undoubtedly the cause of the construction of sidewalks throughout the entire village at an early date. A good bridge was built and planked across the ravine and the various branches of the village were united by substantial bridges and otherwise. In January, 1851, the Winnebago Lake and Fox River Company was organized for the construction of a plank road from Kaukauna to Appleton, a distance of ten miles. This road was completed in the fall of 1852 at an expense of about $20,000. Largely through the efforts of Reeder Smith and other citizens of Appleton, the road was extended from Appleton to Menasha on Lake Winnebago. In the summer of 1851 a bridge 1,500 feet long, costing about $2,000, was constructed across Fox river; also in 1851 two large and convenient public schoolhouses were built and the village was divided into three school districts. The central district soon averaged 80 scholars in attendance daily. Soon after the first settlement the Methodists organized a church and had preaching at stated periods in private houses and stores until the completion of the chapel in the preparatory department of the university. There religious services continued to be held for some time. The Presbyterians organized in 1851, but the next year changed to a Congregational form. In the winter of 1853-4 they erected a beautiful edifice at a cost of $1,700 and by this time were large and prosperous. In 1853 the Baptists likewise organized a congregation in the upper part of the village. In January, 1852, a printing press was brought here, but was destroyed by the fire which burned Askin’s block before a number of the proposed paper was issued. The only other destructive fire previous to 1854 was the burning of the Crescent Hotel by which one life was lost, and the other the destruction of Bowen’s Hotel, a very large building, in the spring of 1854. In March, 1849, the first postoffice was established and John F. Johnston became postmaster. He resigned in 1853 and was succeeded by Henry S. Eggleston. The first mail received at Appleton was brought from Green Bay in March, 1849, by William Richards. The first mail consisted of four newspapers and one letter. The books of the postoffice in May, 1854, showed that 594 weekly papers and periodicals published abroad were taken at Appleton each week. In April, 1851, the county of Outagamie was set off from Brown and organzied. In 1852 the legislature located the county seat of Outagamie county on a block of land near the center of Appleton where A. A. Lawrence, Theodore Conkey, A. B. Bowen and M. L. Martin had laid out lots. In January, 1853, Ryan & Company were induced to bring a printing office here, and on February 17, 1853, the first number of the Appleton Crescent was issued. In 1853 the plank road from Appleton to Stevens’ Point was projected and commenced. In May, 1854, Appleton contained the following houses, improvements and industries: 7 dry goods stores; 1 grocery and hardware store; I drugs and groceries; 1 groceries and varieties; 1 grocery and bakery; 1 grocery and provisions; 1 drugs and books; 2 tin shops; 2 paint shops; 2 flouring mills; 1 paper mill; 4 saw mills; 2 lath mills; 1 planing mill; 2 sash and blind factories; 1 edge-tool factory; 1 chair factory; 3 cabinet ware rooms; 3 blacksmith shops; 3 tailor shops; 1 harness shop; 5 boot and shoe shops; 1 gunsmith shop; I market house; 1 saleratus factory; 1 ashery; 1 millinery shop; 1 dentist; 1 barber; 2 fanning mill manufactories; 1 wagon shop; 1 cooper shop; 2 hotels; 4 or 5 boarding houses; 2 architects; 4 law offices; 3 medical offices; 1 publishing house and printing office; 3 surveyors; several carpenter shops; secret societies; 1 Saxehorn band, etc. During 1853 there was sold at Appleton about $60,000 worth of goods. In 1854 there was sold approximately $150,000 worth. The population was mostly American at this time, few foreigners having located here. Sabbaths were better observed than usual in new localities. The temper of the people, their previous religious training and the influence of the University raised the morals of this community to a high standard. Groggeries, doggeries or saloons were not permitted to locate here. The village in 1854 was rapidly filling with settlers from the eastern and middle states. At a later period Germans and other foreigners located throughout the county in large numbers.

The people complained bitterly during the summer of 1854 of irregularity in the mails. Too often the mail destined for Appleton was carried by and only returned after a long delay amid much vexation. “It has come to a pretty pass if the Menasha squad belonging to the ‘Forty Thieves’ are to be suffered to detain the mails for their private inspection or to spite a community which happens to look with disfavor upon their schemes. The eastern mail which arrived at Menasha on Tuesday of this week was received here on Thursday and the Milwaukee papers which we should receive Thursday will be kept there until Saturday so the public can see that the Menasha postmaster is determined to have a watchful eye to their interests.” –(Crescent, June 3, 1854).

In 1854 the city council passed an ordinance prohibiting the introduction, storing, depositing, keeping in store, in deposit or on hand, or having in possession within the corporate limits of Appleton, any spirituous, vinous, malt, fermented, mixed or intoxicating liquors or exchanging the same, or for any species of traffic and designated the same to be a public nuisance. A heavy penalty was attached to the violation of this ordinance.

In June, 1854, Samuel Ryan, Jr., editor of the Crescent, was appointed deputy patriarch of the order Knights of Temperance in Wisconsin. As such he was required to travel considerably throughout the state.

“Improvements. –The east end of our village is improving quite rapidly. Some of the handsomest dwellings are situated in that locality and in sidewalks, etc., more is being done than in the balance of Appleton.” –(Crescent, June 10, 1854.) Waverly Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons was instituted in Appleton early in 1854. The following were the first officers: James W. Murray, W. M.; P. H. Smith, S. W.; M. D. McGrath, J.W. They first met in their hall opposite the Crescent office.

The Fond du Lac Herald having stated that a hotel-keeper in Appleton sold liquor in violation of the law, was called to task by the Crescent in the following language: “What hotel-keeper in Appleton sells liquor, Mr. Herald? Give us his name or the name of the hotel and the time when liquor was sold. If it is sold in this town it is done contrary to law. If known only to the initiated or strangers, we are one of many who will, follow it up with penalties of the law if the facts can be known. We stated that there was not a groggery or liquor saloon in the city. We now ask the Herald for the facts upon which the above statement is predicated. The people of this town in the absence of a state enactment have determined that liquor shall not be sold here and they are anxious to follow up that determination if necessary with the penalties provided by law for unlicensed grog selling and thus prevent the name of Appleton from becoming contaminated with rum selling or rum drinking.” –( Crescent, June 10, 1854.)

“And Still They Come. –The rush of New Englanders and New Yorkers to our village appears to widen and deepen. A large number of families have arrived here within the past ten days and are already making preparations to build houses and engage in business. The sale of lots in the two extremes of the corporation –the upper and lower villages –are quite numerous and several first class dwellings are in progress or prospective and will be erected before the leaves of autumn fall. The best of all is there is no speculation –no undue exchange or increase in price of town lots. There is a gradual rise, but no wild or unhealthy speculation.” –(Crescent, June 24, 1854.)

In June, 1854, the council of Appleton passed an ordinance intended to prevent fires and to regulate the fighting of the same. The city was divided into two fire districts, all east of Appleton street being one and all west the other. Fire wardens were duly appointed for each district. Complete arrangements to prevent fires were made. At the same time an ordinance prohibiting gaming, gambling, etc., was passed.

“Tewlah Encampment No. 1. Order of Knights of Temperance was instituted in Appleton by Samuel Ryan, Jr., on the 24th of June. This order was a higher branch of the Sons of Temperance, its main object being to procure the enactment and attend to the enforcement of a prohibitory liquor law.” – -(Crescent, July, 1854.)

The 4th of July, 1854, was observed in Appleton in accordance with a set program. At one o’clock the national salute was fired. Immediately at its conclusion the procession formed on the streets and after traversing Edwards, Morrison, College avenue and Drew street, reached the grove where the ceremonies of the afternoon were observed. The attendance was greater than was expected. Many toasts were responded to by the leading citizens. The oration of President Cooke was worthy of the day and the man. Its merits and ease, its power and eloquence, and its delivery were equal to the occasion. The Crescent said, “The speaker has but few equals in the pulpit, in the lecture room no superior, and as a platform orator will rank among the first.”

Just beyond the toll gate on the Lake Winnebago road was the large brick manufactory of the Messrs. Childs. They made large quantities which were used in nearly all the brick buildings erected in this vicinity in early years. By 1854 Appleton by reason of its wonderful water power had attracted the attention of capitalists throughout the entire East. Many came west to inspect the location and not a few became financially interested in the various works along the river.

“The Liquor Nuisance. –Within a week past a drunken white man and a drunken Indian woman have been seen on our streets. Now that there are remedies provided which will reach both seller and buyer we hope to see the temperance men of Appleton on the alert to detect and punish the violators of the law. Heretofore there have been sundry places where Menasha beer was bought and drank. Strong liquors have probably been slyly sold by some of these beerites. Some of our merchants have sold liquor for ‘medicinal’ purposes. Now the question is here: If we wish to have Appleton retain its good name the solid men of the place must enforce the ordinances. Appleton doesn’t need liquor sellers nor liquor drinkers to add to its importance or prosperity.”-(Crescent, July 15, 1854.)

Among the officials of Konemic No. .47, Odd Fellows, in 1854 were the following: L. L. Randall, Samuel Ryan, Jr., Wm. A. Prall, Franklin Proctor, W. H. Shermin, M. D. McGrath, W. C.Wells, A. B. Briggs, John C. Ryan, C. D. Foote, Jacob Kohler N. W. Askin, N. J. Graves, J. Hersey. At this time the lodge was in prosperous operation.

Among the leading members of Tewlah Encampment No. 1, order Knights of Temperance, were: Wm. H. Sherwin, Wm. A. Prall, John C. Ryan, Thomas Marsden, Thomas R. Hudd, Jacob Kohler, A. T. Sherwood, James Ryan, L. B. Noyes, James W. Letcher, 0. W. Clark.

Among the leading members of Outagamie Division No. 119, Sons of Temperance were: John C. Ryan, WTm. A. Prall, Wm. B. Mitchell, Luther B. Noyes, H. RogersJames Ryan, George Huntley, Thomas Marsden, W. W. Crane, Samuel Ryan, Jr., A. T. Sherwood.

Among the leading members of Waverly Lodge No. 51, Masons, were the following: James W. Murray, P. H. Smith, M. D. McGrath, Amos Story, Anson Ballard, John Moodie, Peter White, John Kolher. The Masonic Lodge was prospering and growing finely.

“Hot. –Sunday last was the hottest day we have seen in Wisconsin within seven years. The thermometer marked 103 degrees in the shade. It was a ‘melting time.’ “-(Crescent, June 8, 1854.)

“Within the past fortnight arrangements have been made for the immediate erection of a dozen large and substantial buildings and as many more ‘shells or balloons.’ Real estate is rising in value quite rapidly. Lots in the east part of the village have doubled in price since March. In the west end the increase is fully 75 per cent. Farming lands adjoining the corporation have trebled in value within six months. Compared with Oshkosh and Fond du Lac, Appleton prices are astonishingly low.” –(Crescent, July 29, 1854).

On the 4th of July, 1854, one of the principal speeches at Appleton was delivered by Mr. Cornelius, the Oneida chief. He thanked his white brothers for the interest they manifested in the education of Oneida children at Lawrence University. He also thanked them for the privilege of addressing them on this celebrated day. He alluded feelingly to the beneficial results of missionary labors among his tribe and boasted the progress that Oneida was making in civilization and religion.

Thomas Hanna, the first landlord of the National Hotel, who had sold it to others, again took charge of the institution in September, 1854. He thoroughly refitted the house and prepared it for the traveling public.

Early in September S. N. Hewlett, Grand Lecturer of the Sons of Temperance, Wisconsin, addressed a large audience at the courthouse in Appleton. Johnston Saxehorn Band furnished music. The address of Mr. Hewlett was spoken of as one of great power and eloquence. He did not mince matters, but spoke of liquor selling and liquor generally in fitting terms. There was a strong element here, probably the New Yorkers and New Englanders, who were opposed to the sale of liquor in any form; but the Hollanders and other families who came in later seemed determined to have the beer and other light drinks to which they were accustomed in the old country. There thus developed in a short time a strong fight throughout the county for and against liquor selling.

“Another Bear. –Our Appleton hunter, Mr. Warner, killed a fine black bear on the school section north of this town. The bears are, very troublesome in that locality, killing hogs and scaring the juveniles. What say our fun-loving people to a real bear-hunt?’ –(Crescent.) At this time a call for a general hunt in the vicinity, of Appleton was published. All persons willing to join in the sport were requested to meet at the Crescent Hotel preliminary to the start.

C. P. Richmond manufactured a substantial quality of wrapping paper at the Appleton mills and sold it on reasonable terms.The paper of these mills began to find its way into every village in northern Wisconsin. In August Appleton contained eighteen manufacturing establishments and mills of different kinds in actual operation. This was something to boast of and the Crescent did not hesitate to do so.

“Mr. Warren Warner killed a large and a handsome deer in this vicinity day before yesterday. Mr. Warner kills more game than any three of our citizens and his exploits have long since entitled him to the appellation of Appleton’s Hunter.’ We return him the thanks of our household for a choice haunch of the venison.” –Crescent, August 5, 1854.)

Several cases for geologists came up in August, 1854. From 16 to 18 feet below the surface of the ground at Appleton cedar boughs, foliage, stumps, etc., were invariably found in digging: wells. The soil on the surface was a hard marl; underneath was, black soil which seemed once to have supported a heavy vegetation. It was thus clear that after vegetation had been in progress the Fox river valley was covered with a heavy depth of new soil by the Green Bay glacier.

In November, 1854, the Richmond Company was running their paper mill night and day and was unable to supply the demands of the surrounding country. At this date they manufactured nothing but wrapping paper. They were making preparations to manufacture at an early date printing paper as well.

“Appleton–Our Population. –The entire vote polled on Tuesday last was 343. We have since a list of 41 more legal voters who staid away from the election. According to the usual computation of one voter to every seven persons, and allowing that 120 voters live out of the village, and we have a population of 1,848, exclusive of 240 students and at least 250 other persons who moved in this summer and are not registered. Two thousand is therefore a low estimate of the actual resident population of the village of Appleton.” – -( Crescent, November 11, 1854.)

Letcher & Ladd prepared in the fall of 1854 to build their oil mill and to start operations in the spring of 1855. Conrad Geiger prepared to erect a large cabinet shop near the Edgerton House. His cabinet shop was the fourth in Appleton. Whitney and Ashton erected a large dining-room on College avenue opposite the preparatory department of the University.

Late in 1854 the cemetery at Appleton was greatly beautified and improved. The institution was owned by an. association. Late in 1854 the large bridge across the ravine near the paper mills was completed. It was 200 feet below the high bridge. Owing to the high elevation of Appleton upon the river it was necessary for the accommodations of business men to erect six or seven bridges exclusive of those across the river. This entailed upon the citizens a considerable additional expense.

So fast was the growth of Appleton and vicinity in 1854 that no less than three and sometimes four sawmills were constantly employed in manufacturing lumber for home consumption. Two years before there was a period of stagnation in building; now, however, a change appeared. The mills during the summer of 1854 worked constantly day and night. No lumber or very little was shipped out of the county, but considerable was brought in from abroad. Farmers and others who built in the county, secured their logs often on their own farms or from neighboring pine lands. Nearly all the lumber thus furnished by the three or four sawmills was used within the corporate limits of Appleton. Late in 1854 everything indicated great growth during the year 1855.

Late in 1854 there were five secret societies in Appleton, viz.: Sons of Temperance, Independent Order of Ancient Knighthood, the Masons, the Odd Fellows and the U. or B. of R. During the year there were but eight deaths in the village of Appleton. It was boastingly declared that no other village in the West could show such a record of healthfulness.

“Temperance. –What is the distinct trait of the people of Appleton? The answer is –temperance –strict sobriety in town or corporation. Officers do not license rum selling and when any is sold it is in violation of the law and of public sentiment. When men sell liquor we fine them and when they get drunk we imprison them. These sedatives have an influence. We propose that the sentence be doubled to all offenders.”-(Crescent, December 16, 1854).

During 1854 Appleton filled with, new enterprises. About a year before, the Congregationalists erected a large church, and near the close of the year the Methodists erected another. The University building was now nearly finished and was a striking and attractive feature. The Sunday schools were enlarged and improved. The Congregationalists added to their Sunday school an excellent library and late in 1854 the Methodist Sunday school raised $50 to secure the nucleus of a library for that denomination. Throughout the county several of the settlements had Sunday schools which were likewise active laborers. Generally in this town and county the Sabbath was more generally and sincerely respected than in almost any city in the Western states. It was for this reason partly that Appleton was called the “Puritan village.”

During the year of 1854 a shipment of lumber from the Fox river regions aggregated about 3,000,000 feet.

By act approved February 13, 1855, Frederick PackardJackson TibbitsAnson Ballard and their associates were incorporated as the Appleton Manufacturing and Water Power Company with a capital of not less than $20,000 nor more than $150,000. Their business was shown by their corporate name.

The act of February 24, 1855, amended the act incorporating the village of Appleton approved March 29, 1853, by striking out the following words after “thirty-four” in section 1: “Thence running east along the subdivision line of section 34 to the left bank of the Fox river; thence down stream alongside left bank of Fox river and inserting the following: “Thence running south to the southerly bank of Fox river; thence easterly along said south bank of Fox river to a point where the Fox and Wisconsin river improvement canal intersects said river; thence along the center of said canal.”

The Legislature by act approved March 31, 1855, gave the trustees of Appleton power to divide the territory into any numbel of wards, not exceeding three; require each voter to vote in his own ward; provided for the election of a county supervisor in each ward.

In January, 1855, land, not lots, within the corporation limits sold for $100 per acre, and choice building lots on Lawrence street sold for $400. Several building lots in the Third ward, three squares back of the river, sold for $150, $125, $100. None for less than $100 was to be had. Lumber was as scarce and as high as ever. Land one mile from Appleton was sold for $50 per acre. Land lying on the road west of the courthouse through Greenville and to Ball Prairie, increased several dollars per acre in one week, it was noted. These were genuine advances without a touch of speculation.

During the winter the legislature passed sundry amendments to the Appleton city charter, among which were the following: That a strip of territory south of the river and above the canal should be annexed to the village so that all machinery, mills and water power should be included within the incorporate limits; Appleton was divided into three wards.

During the early spring immense quantities of logs were hauled here to be used during the coming season for building purposes. People did not wait until the rafts should come down the river, but began hauling as early as January.

The Outagamie assemblyman, Judge Smith, was criticized for his vote on the Prohibitory Liquor Law. He voted first not to indefinitely postpone the whole subject. On the question of submitting the bill to a vote of the people he voted yes. On the question of excluding brandy and cheap whisky through the operation of the law he voted no. On the question of excluding wine, beer and cider made in Wisconsin he voted yes. On excluding the manufacture and sale of beer, the manufacture and sale of pure wine made of grapes grown in the United States, and the manufacture and sale of pure cider made from apples, he voted yes. On the second motion to submit the bill to the vote of the people he voted yes. He moved to strike out section 7. In ordering the bill to be engrossed for the third reading he voted no, and on the final passage of the bill he voted no. This final vote he knew was not in accordance with the sentiments of his assembly district. Judge Smith was asked publicly to inform his constituents why he voted as above. It was stated further that after a motion was made to reconsider the vote by which the bill was passed Judge Smith voted no, whereby it was argued that the Judge opposed the right of search. Later on it was announced that on the final vote Judge Smith was in favor of the passage of the bill.

The Crescent, in the spring of 1855, in announcing the approaching election, suggested that many practices and customs existing there should be abolished; many reforms should be made, and the way to effect these reforms was to elect the best village board obtainable. The streets needed cleaning; sidewalks were encumbered with boxes, barrels and rubbish; the streets were strewn with wood, dirt and filth; hogs run wild and were a great nuisance; untamed school-boys hung about the streets late at night; and worse than all liquor was sold and drank in many places on the sly. It was declared that if Appleton expected to retain its high reputation a great improvement was immediately necessary.

In March, 1855, the Crescent was in ecstasy over the action of the assembly, which by the decisive vote of 57 to 6, repealed the act of the previous winter, providing for the appointment of the lunatic association and empowering them to let a contract for building an asylum at an expense of not more than $30,000. It was reported that Mr. Sanborn and his associates sent. in a communication charging the investigation committee of the Legislature with falsehood and misrepresentation, and that the assembly unanimously refused to receive it. Mr. Sanborn was one of the ablest lawyers of Outagamie county.

Late in March, 1855, came the news that the prohibitory bill was vetoed by the governor. It then failed to pass over the veto. It was really no prohibitory bill, because it sanctioned the manufacture and sale of whisky, wine, beer and cider. The Outagamie senator and assemblynan voted for the passage of the bill over the governor’s veto. Immediately thereafter a new bill having a similar import was passed by a majority of 18 votes.

The hotels at Appleton having become overcrowded largely by university students, it was proposed to form a joint stock association for the purpose of erecting a hotel building which should be wholly devoted to the traveling public. It was proposed to raise a capital of $15,000, the citizens to subscribe for the stock and to erect such a building immediately.

The act approved April 2, 1855, provided that the trustees of Appleton should have power to divide the territory within the corporation into any number of wards not to exceed three as in their judgment should be convenient and proper.

The citizens boasted that Appleton possessed unusual social advantages. It was composed mainly of people from the Central and New England states, men and women who had grown up in communities possessing excellent schools and churches and were accordingly cultured and fit in every way for the higher and better duties of life. It was declared that Appleton was noted for its morality, sobriety, culture and politeness. The citizens called the place, “Our Woodland Home,” and stated that the population was fitted for the best society, and that Appleton should therefore.receive and would welcome educated people from the Eastern and Central states or elsewhere. It was said that in comparison to population, no state in the West contained such a strong preponderance of religious over irreligious sentiments. While the various sects might differ, yet all agreed on the great blessings of Christianity. Appleton at this time began to be called the “Gem of Fox River Valley.’

The three wards of Appleton were established as follows: First ward –all east of Drew street, with polling place at the Corner Hotel; Second ward –all between Drew street and Grand Chute village plat, with polling place at MeSchule’s Appleton House; Third ward –all west of North Division street and the strip of territory on the south side of the river between the canal and river, with polling place at the Chute schoolhouse.

In the spring the Appleton Crescent entered upon its third volume. It was generally regarded as one of the best newspapers in Wisconsin. It attended to home matters and at the same time gave an abundance of information concerning State and National affairs. The Crescent called the governor’s veto of the prohibitory liquor law, “the last kick of lunacy.”

In April the combined singing schools of Appleton, Neenah and Menasha gave a concert in the College chapel in Appleton under the direction of J. B. Carpenter. The Appleton Saxe-Horn Band assisted in the exercises. A large audience heard the fine music.

The Crescent claimed a circulation of a few less than 1,000. It stated that its profits were not made upon a subscription list, but upon job work which in reality supported the paper. Outagamie county gave Judge Flint (D.) a majority of 219 votes for circuit judge of the Fourth district in 1855.

Previous to the spring of 1855, Appleton had done a great deal for the opening of roads and the construction of bridges. Its enterprise built the plank road from Appleton to Kaukauna. It also constructed the bridge across Fox river and many other bridges over small streams and large ravines. In the spring of 1855 it voted a special road tax of $900. The usual road tax was $1,000. Also it subscribed $10,000 in the Stevens Point road.

In April the lower dam at Appleton gave way, some 50 feet being swept off; two men, John Garvey and Michael Paris, were instantly drowned and several others were badly hurt. Among the Appleton items in April were the following: Jackson Tibbits was chosen chief fire engineer of the fire department. A new plank walk 12 feet wide was built on College avenue. In answer to the petition of property holders a public pound was established to be used for cattle and hogs. E. D. Finney, marshal, was elected street commissioner. William G. Prall was elected village clerk. Notwithstanding the scarcity of lumber, building began in the spring of 1855 actively and extensively. Many new faces were seen on the streets, and the back woods were swarming with men from the hills of New England and the worn-out farms of New York. Everywhere throughout Appleton the residents were planting shade trees.Four sawmills were in active operation and could scarcely meet the requirements of building at Appleton alone. Experienced nurserymen from the East arrived at this time and established nurseries near Appleton; Mr. Ticknor was one.

In early years Appleton was visited by many prominent men from the East who came here to make investigations concerning the water power. In 1855 ex-Governor Seymour of New York visited the public works of the Lower Fox and spent some time inspecting the improvements on the river. Upon invitation of Dr. Cook, he addressed the students of the University in the College chapel. He expressed himself most highly gratified with his tour through the valley of the Lower Fox.

In May, 1855, land near Appleton was worth from $50 to $150 an acre; choice business lots on College avenue near Appleton street sold for from $15 to $20 a front foot. Good dwelling lots 60×120 feet sold for from $100 to $120 each. It was stated that if speculation could be kept down, Appleton would have a population of 5,000 soon. Many of the newcomers were from New York and New England. It was asked by the Crescent why some local capitalist did not go into the business of building dwelling houses for new residents. Every shanty in town was full to overflowing. Strangers were arriving daily and no houses were ready for their occupancy, consequently many went elsewhere to build and reside. The opening of the plank road from Lawrence street through the ravine to the courthouse attracted a large number of residents to that portion of Appleton lying north and west of the park. In the First ward numerous houses were going up.

The Appleton flour mills were one of the most notable early industries. Usually farmers did not expect to secure a. barrel of flour at other mills from less than five or six bushels of wheat. It was noted that the Genesee Mills at Appleton furnished a barrel of superfine flour from four bushels and twelve pounds of wheat. Farmers came here from a distance of more than twenty miles. These mills paid cash for wheat.

“House Building. –Notwithstanding the scarcity and high price of lumber many new frame buildings are in process of erection in this village, and others are contracted for as soon as lumber can be, procured.” The Crescent further said that very nearly 100 new houses were to be built in Appleton during the summer of 1855.

Early in the year when the fugitive slave was. rescued from the jail in Milwaukee, many Republicans here rejoiced; for this they were scolded by the Crescent.

In the summer the Odd Fellows formed a joint stock association with a capital of $3,000 for the purpose of building a brick building three stories high in which should be their hall. It was called the Konemic Joint Stock Association. The committee having the project in charge was J. C. Cross, G. W. Gregory and Samuel Ryan, Jr. The Crescent complained of the quality of paper it was getting and asked the Appleton paper mills to commence the manufacture of suitable paper for newspaper use. In May there were sold in Appleton 94 lots. In January a party consisting of several families from Kentucky visited Appleton and spent several days in looking over the county. They were highly pleased and many of them made preparations to settle here.

In January, 1855, T. R. Hudd of the Outagamie division of the Sons of Temperance delivered an address on prohibition to a large audience in the courthouse. It was one of the ablest and most instructive addresses ever heard in the village. The Saxe-Horn band furnished music.

In July, 1855, some person set fire to the village pound and it was burned to the ground. A reward was offered for the arrest of the culprit.

Late in 1855 the paper mills at Appleton were unable still to furnish suitable paper for the Crescent. That newspaper was compelled to get its paper from Beloit. The paper company here, however, promised at an early day to meet this demand.

“Families are still moving into town and the sawmills are busy manufacturing lumber. Quite a large population is coming into our village and county. Red republicanism and mob law are driving hundreds from Washington county.” — (Crescent, September 15, 1855.)

“The population of Appleton is principally made up of New Yorkers and New Englanders with some dozen families of English, about fifteen families of German, and as many of Irish birth. We have only two or three French families and not a Spaniard nor a negro. In the county we have the Hoosier settlement in Freedom. Centre is entirely settled by natives of Ireland, most of whom have been many years in America. Their settlement extends into Freedom and Kaukauna. There is also quite a settlement of Irish in Greenville, which with Dale is the garden of the county. The Hollanders have a large settlement in Kaukauna extending thence into Brown and Sheboygan counties. There is also quite a French population in Kaukauna, mostly descendants of the French settlers and traders who came to Green Bay at a very early day. The German population of our county is not large and is scattered. Dale has the most considerable settlement of Germans extending into Hortonia and Greenville and a few into Ellington. Very many, however, are of German descent, though really Buckeye born. The German population of our county is prospering. Ellington, Bovina and Embarrass contain settlers mostly of American birth and with the exception of Centre and Kaukauna the citizens of native birth are the most numerous in every town in the county.” –(Crescent, December 22, 1855.)

In August Reeder Smith sold to Anson Ballard two lots on Lawrence street for $1,000 cash. This showed the rapid advance in the price of Appleton lots. On September 1, Rolla A. Law published his valedictory and retired from the editorial staff of the Crescent.He had been political editor. Among the new establishments in Appleton were Franklin & Crockett shoe shop; Hull & Lanphear dry goods; besides there were a new tailor shop, a new meat market, a new livery stable and omnibus line, several new boarding houses and a new sawmill.

In September at a musical convention held in Fond du Lac in the Baptist church, Outagamie county was represented by its best musicians. Royal Buck of Fond du Lac was president of the convention; Win. A. Prall of Appleton was corresponding and recording secretary. After an interesting and enjoyable entertainment and, experience the convention adjourned to meet at Berlin in February, 1856. Late in 1855, Theodore Conkey started an ashery and began the manufacture of pearl-ash and potash for market.

In October Mr. Waitt opened a writing school in Appleton. He exhibited specimens of his penmanship, which were beautiful in the extreme. He succeeded in raising a large class which he conducted for several months. Late in 1855 the business outlook for 1856 was very promising. The Odd Fellows large brick building was in progress; J. C. Smith expected to build a block of brick stores; W. S. Warner had projected a brick bank building; W. H. White intended to build a large three story hotel; E. Morrow had commenced a brick block; W. C. Griffiths projected a brick block at the old corner; P. H. Smith prepared to build one opposite the Masonic hall; and many others had in contemplation the erection of either dwellings or business blocks. The Konemic Joint Stock Association was organized fully late in October by the election of the following trustees: W. S. Warner, J. W. Carhart, Jr., Samuel Ryan, Jr., G. W. Gregory and Waite Cross. The trustees selected the following officers: President, Samuel Ryan, Jr.; secretary, J. T. Carhart, Jr.; treasurer, William S. Warner.

In December, 1855, the Outagamie County Bank, one of exchange and deposit, was opened in Appleton by Cronkhite & Company. H. S. Marsh was cashier. It was the first regular bank established in this county. Previously Cronkhite & Company had conducted a banking establishment here, but it was an inconsequential branch of their larger banks elsewhere.

The village officers of Appleton in January, 1856, were as follows: President, R. A. Lawe; trustees –First ward –Waite Cross, J. S. Buck; Second ward Byron Douglas and W. S. Warner; Third ward –H. W. Ladd and C. E. Bement; clerk, W. A. Prall; treasurer, James M. Eggleston; marshal, J. H. Marston; street commissioner, W. S. Warner; fire wardens, A. B. Randall and A. B. Everts; chief engineer fire department, Jackson Tibbits. It was thought at this time that the village board contemplated repealing the anti-liquor ordinance owing to the indifference of a large portion of the community to the subject. Many Germans and others accustomed to drink beer had come in and there was developing a change of sentiment regarding the sale and usage of liquor.

In January, Nelson Phelps of the firm of Tibbits & Phelps, while standing upon the bridge crossing Fox river, lost his footing, fell into the rapids, was whirled down stream and drowned. This sudden and awful accident cast a gloom upon the village. The funeral sermon was preached by Rev. H. H. Benson of the Congregational church. About March 1, John Elliott succeeded Henry S. Eggleston as postmaster at Appleton. Mr. Eggleston resigned the office. Mr. Elliott had been his deputy during the past year and a half. The Free Press was in existence in 1856 with S. H. Brady as editor.

In June, 1856, the liquor ordinance of the village of Appleton was repealed by the board because it was universally treated as a dead letter. Thus a great change had taken place in the attitude here concerning liquor. The old guard was still faithful to prohibition, but the new arrivals demanded their beer and other liquor.

There was rendered in July, 1856, the most meritorious and memorable operatic or musical exhibition ever given in Appleton up to that date, under the leadership of Miss Crandall, musical teacher in the University. By special request the concert was repeated the next evening. The Appleton concert band was rejuvenated and made preparations for the summer’s campaign.

On January 18, 1857, the mercury at Appleton early in the morning stood at 27 ° below zero; on the following morning it was 23 ° below zero; after warming up a little it again sank to 27 below zero on Thursday morning and to 24 ° below on Friday morning.The latter day was the worst of all because there blew a strong wind that cut through robes and clothing. At this time the snow was two feet deep on the level.

In January, Anson Ballard was master of Waverly Lodge, No.51, Masons; M, D. McGrath was senior warden and Thomas A. Wilson, junior warden. The lodge was in excellent working condition with a goodly membership. A new hotel was planned to cost $30,000 and to be paid for by stock subscription. About this time the taxes in the three wards of Appleton were considered high, owing to the fact that the people were taxed extra to build new schoolhouses needed to meet the growth of the village. The famous Genessee Mills of Appleton were purchased by Frederick and Charles Pfennig, who came here from Washington county, and took possession about the 20th of that month. These mills were considered the best in this portion of the state. The Outagamie County Bank erected in handsome brick building near Post’s drug store. The bank designed to issue its own notes early the coming spring. Turner’s new sawmill on the Grand Chute rapids was put into operation about the first of February. It was new, up-to-date, and worked satisfactorily it was designed to improve the machinery as fast as the business should warrant.

The boundaries of the three city wards in 1857 were as follows: First ward –All that territory lying east of a line commencing on the north boundary of the city, also to Drew street; thence following said Drew street to Fox river; thence by a line through Fox river to the west end of Grand Chute island; thence around the island to the intersection of the Menasha plank road; thence southerly along the road to the township line. Second ward –All west of the line just described and east of the following line: From the west end of the Grand Chute island to the foot of Elm street; thence along Elm street to the courthouse square; thence through the center of said square to the northern line of North Division street, as found on Stephen’s lithograph map, the name of which street is changed to West End avenue; thence north to the city boundary. Third ward –Embraces the remainiing territory in the city. The Second ward was the smallest in territory, but much the largest in population, while the First and Third wards were about equal in territory and population. It was presumed that in the end the territory south of Fox river would be organized into a separate ward. Each ward assumed the position of a town in nearly all respects, the duty of supervisor being entailed upon the aldermen and each ward therefore had its own tax for ward purposes and thus its own locality and interests to be cared for. Special city taxes could be voted for waterworks, fire engines, etc. The city officers to be elected were mayor, supervisor, director and marshal. Each ward was to elect a county supervisor, two aldermen, one justice of the peace and one constable. The mayor and aldermen were not to receive pay. The above ward boundaries were changed somewhat a little later. The territory which was incorporated as the City of Appleton was that lying in the town of Grand Chute and embraced in sections 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 34, 35, 36, town 21 north, range 17 east.

It seemed almost unaccountable to the people ot Appleton in 1857, when that village was made a city, that only about nine years before the site was a wilderness where wild animals roamed unmolested. The city charter passed the legislature late in February and was duly approved by the governor. The first election of city officials was ordered held April 21. The city was divided into three wards, each of which was required to choose two aldermen and one supervisor. The general city tax was limited to three mills on the dollar. The town of Grand Chute was required to hold its next town meeting at the courthouse. No resident of the city could vote for town officials or be eligible to a town office. All connection between city and town was dissolved in May. The city could not be bonded for over half a million dollars for railroads. Altogether the inhabitants were well pleased and were prepared for the city administration. It was noted that only ten years before Appleton had no existence whatever, neither houses, people nor name.

In 1857 Appleton boasted of its stone quarry and said that for building purposes no town of the state could surpass this locality in the production of an extremely durable building stone. Copper ore had been found in different places in the town of Medina and scattered quantities had been found in other portions of the county.

The Crescent stated in April, 1857, that the paper used in its issues was manufactured at the Appleton Paper Mills by C. P. Richmond. The paper was of good quality apparently though the surface was somewhat rough. From the large number of contracts let by April it was clear that many new stores and residences would be built in Appleton during the coming year. There would probably be spent over $30,000 for the erection of private residences alone. In that part of First ward north of Fox river, it was believed that $60,000 would be spent for dwellings. In the Third ward a large amount was also expected to be spent. This did not take into account the money likely to be used for public structures of all kinds. Nor did it include some $25,000 which would probably be needed for the Female college. In March the legislature passed a bill legalizing certain acts of the president and trustees of Appleton in laying out and establishing certain highways and streets and in performing other needed improvements. After the passage of the city charter there was some complaint because it was believed the legislature had disfranchised many of the citizens when it stipulated that they should not vote for town officials for the town of Grand Chute. When the nature and object of the law was explained to them their grumbling ceased.

In the spring of 1857 it was demanded that there should be a resurvey and replatting of Appleton and that a new map thereof should be made. As it was there was much confusion; a half dozen different plats and maps were consulted and several of them conflicted. It was demanded that a system should be adopted and a reorganization of the method of keeping the city plat should be made. The summer was very wet, rain after rain following each other in succession, and on more than one occasion two inches of rain fell in less than one hour. The streams were flooded and about 50 feet of the river bridge near the north shore were swept away by the logs which lodged against it. In July a, public square for the Second ward was demanded. When the town was platted this portion was so small that no land could be. spared for such a purpose, but now the citizens felt the need of such an open place. Another in the vicinity of Superior and Morrison streets was demanded.

“Whoop Hurrah! –Our city fathers have been compelled to pass an ordinance that sidewalks of a width not less than six feet shall be built hereafter owing to the ladies’ hoops. Six feet is rather narrow judging by what we have seen on the avenue, namely, a gentleman hugging the doorstep of a store to let two ladies pass on a twelve-foot walk.” –(Crescent, July 25, 1857.)

In July the American Express Company extended its line of operation to Appleton, Green Bay, and other points in this portion of the state. In August there was a daily line of this express; John Elliott was appointed their agent. For a year or more before this date there had existed an irregular independent express between Green Bay and Menasha. It was not well regulated and usually charged enormous prices for its services. The Appleton Hotel Company was organized for the purpose of subscribing stock to be used in building a large hotel. The shares were placed at $25 each. The commissioners were Theodore Conkey, P. H. Smith, J. M. Phinney, L. H. Hanchett, T. A. Wilcox, Reuben Doud, Jackson Tibbits and Winfield Scott. Under the supervision of Mr. Jenne, engineer, a dam and lock were erected at Little Kaukauna and one on a larger scale at the Croche Rookery.

In the spring of 1857 Appleton had the National Hotel, a house that was well patronized and well thought of; but the city, it was argued, needed a public house four times as large, and it was urged again, as it had been on several occasions before, to organize .a stock company and erect a hotel costing approximately $20,000.

By August 1 the new bank building was nearly finished and was one of the best brick structures in this city. It was designed to be ready for occupancy October 10. The bids, eleven in number, to build a sewer between Oneida and Drew streets, were opened, and the contract was awarded to William Johnson for $64o. The bids ranged up as high as $1,700. In response to the appeal a bill to incorporate the city of Appleton was introduced in the legislature in September. About the middle of September the Good Templars of Fond du Lac gathered in an excursion on the Appleton Belle and spent a day with the Sons of Temperance and other similar organizations of Appleton. They were accompanied by a band and were given an enjoyable day.

In the suit of Smith against Lawrence for lands within the limits of Appleton and for other claims, the former was awarded one-half the property in dispute and a judgment of $2,832.15, with costs amounting to $1,557.30. Messrs. T. P. Bingham, Edward West and A. B. Jackson were appointed commissioners to divide the property between the litigants. These men failed to act, whereupon the court appointed Theodore Conkey, T. R. Hudd and A. I. Cronkhite as such commissioners. The fact that a large tract of land in the Second ward was tied up in the Smith-Lawrence legal controversy caused that portion of the city to remain unsettled much longer than it otherwise would have been. Judge P. H. Smith, the owner of about thirty-three acres recently purchased by him from Levi Randall, laid the same out in lots and streets and offered it for sale. In the spring of 1857 the county grounds were improved. The population of Appleton at this time was claimed to be 3,000 people, but was considerably less. Its railroad prospects were excellent. Its commercial facilities were equal to, those of any city in the northern part of the state; its water power was, unsurpassed; the country around was rich, fertile and developing an active and enterprising population; its manufactures were immense and steadily increasing; its educational advantages were second to those of no other city in Wisconsin; and its social and religious influences were all that could be desired.

In October, Theodore Conkey sold his large mercantile establishment to A. B. Everts and W. H. Lanphear, two young men from New York. Reeder Smith and J. W. Hutchinson purchased the entire interest of Judge Smith in the recent addition to Appleton known as the Randall Purchase. They laid out the land in tracts and lots and offered them for sale to actual residents. Other important additions were owned by Bateman & Company, West &Company, and Martin & Company. In November, Samuel P. Hart of Appleton while out looking for a colt scared up a wild animal which was followed by his dog and finally treed. Upon approaching Mr. Hart discovered a huge panther and immediately made preparations to shoot it. He fired but succeeded in breaking one of its fore shoulders only. Before the animal could spring upon him he reloaded and shot it through the head, killing it instantly. The panther was brought to Appleton and exhibited. It measured seven feet two inches from the head to the tip of its tail. Each of the paws was thicker than a strong man’s arm and was capable of striking a sledge-hammer blow. Two of its tusks were already broken off and had been missing apparently for several years. The other two were very large and much worn. Mr. Hart offered the animal to Lawrence University to be stuffed and placed in its cabinet of curiosities. It was noted in November that large quantities of apples, pears, plums, and cherries raised in this portion of the state found market in Appleton.

In 1857 the aggregate assessment footed up $135,000; the total amount of property assessed in Appleton for 1858 was:

Late in 1857 it was found necessary to establish a special nightwatch to prevent the operations of numerous thieves and burglars in and around Appleton.

In January, 1858, the New London Times, which had been suspended for some time, was resurrected and again issued.

It was estimated by the Crescent in January, 1858, that building operations during the previous year amounted to about $80,000. It was the panic year and in consequence thereof building was smaller than would have been under other circumstances. Dwellings, stores, offices, shops, and mills had gone up in large numbers. About $7,000 was expended upon public buildings and in making improvements thereto alone.

Early in February many temperance meetings that were largely attended were held in the basement of the First Ward Methodist Church. Large congregations assembled and much excitement, enthusiasm and zeal prevailed. At this time liquor sellers were endeavoring to secure a permanent footing in Appleton. “We have resided in Appleton a trifle over five years. In 1853 intoxicating liquors were sold at no less than ten different places in Appleton. At that time the entire population was considerably less than one thousand. Now with a population of more than three thousand within the city limits, we find after diligent enquiry that there are but four, or at most five, places of that kind within the limits of the city, three of which are licensed saloons. No man can convince us that ten establishments would keep liquor for sale in 1853 for a population of a thousand unless the traffic paid tolerably well. At that time and for nearly three years afterward beer was a rarity. Now the licensed dealers tell us that beer is used more than all other liquors. Much is said against the actions of the city council in granting liquor licenses. Now it is gravely proposed to resort to the ballot box and elect men to the mayorality and common council who will stand pledged to put down liquor selling except for mechanical, medicinal, and sacramental purposes.” –(Crescent).

In February, 1858, James Duggan, a citizen of Appleton, was killed by John Hogan of Greenville. They had been drinking and engaged in a quarrel. Hogan took a heavy sledge stake and struck Duggan a terrible blow on the side of the head, killing him almost instantly. Hogan was arrested and confined in the county jail.

The Odd Fellows held a festival on Washington’s Birthday in 1858 which was pronounced by far the best celebration of the kind ever seen in Appleton. Colonel William Aldrich, M. W. G. M. of Wisconsin was present and delivered a strong speech. The supper was prepared by Mr. and Mrs. White of the Crescent Hotel. The celebration was held in Cronkhite hall which was tastefully decorated with evergreens, flags and drapery. A large delegation from Neenah and other portions of the state was present. The evening until a late hour was spent in dancing. Early in 1858 the Odd Fellows began making arrangements to build a fine hall in Appleton.

It was noticed in March, 1858, that unusual preparations for building were being made in Appleton. Many contracts were let before the middle of the month and everywhere were evidences of activity and prosperity. In March, 1858, the amended charter of the City of Appleton passed both branches of the legislature and in due time was signed by the governor. The report of the city treasurer in March, 1858, showed that the total receipts were $6,046.55 and the total expenses the same amount less $865.42 on hand at the close of the fiscal year. The largest receipts were from the special road tax amounting to $1,554.30. The special tax for grading and opening streets amounted to $841; tax for school district No. 6, $750; grading and juror’s certificates, $798.

In April, Appleton had five large sawmills, two of them as good or better than any in the state. The two best were owned by Beach, Johnson & Company and Lehigh, Williams & Company. The amount of lumber manufactured here was not known but was probably between 2,000,000 and 3,000,000 feet annually. The pine logs came from the Wolf river and its tributaries. At the annual meeting of the Outagamie Life, Fire & Marine Insurance Company held in April, the following directors were elected: Anson Ballard, J. F. Johnston, J. S. Buck, James Gilmore, J. A. Everts, Peter White, Frederick Packard, William Johnson and Samuel Ryan, Jr. It was stated that the site and nearly $10,000 in stock was pledged for the new hotel that was about to be built.

A special committee of the city council examined the books of the city clerk and city treasurer, but could find no malfeasance or serious blunder. Some accounts were wrongly kept and balances were not right, but as a whole the records of these officers were commended by the committee. Suggestions for improvement were offered and some fault was found, but as a whole the report of the committee was favorable. In the spring the legislature duly passed the acts providing for a survey of the city of Appleton and providing for amendments to the city charter and to local matters.

In 1858 Reeder Smith and a Mr. Wilson each claimed to own the same eighty-acre tract at New London, the former under a sheriff’s deed, and the latter under a deed from Mr. Buck; the original owner, who had gone years before to California. While this dispute was at its height Mr. Buck suddenly returned unannounced and pronounced the deed purported to have been given by him a forgery. A criminal prosecution was threatened. In 1851 Reeder Smith began suit against Amos A. Lawrence, proprietor of a considerable portion of the Appleton town site, for a portion of the property. By 1858 this property was greatly improved with flouring, saw and planing mills and other improved interests. After a protracted suit it was decided in Mr. Smith’s favor and commissioners were appointed to divide the property. While the suit was pending P. H. Smith and Anson Ballard acquired an interest in the property. These various stages tied up the property so that that portion of the town was under a cloud for many years. The decision of the court in the spring of 1858 settled the question. The barrel factory at Appleton was constructed by Dunn & Brewster in the Spring of 1858. The factory and outhouses, consisting of some eight or ten buildings, covered several acres; and all cost, including the machinery, about $40,000. The trade the first year was about $30,000, but in 1864 it amounted to $75,000. They employed from forty to fifty men. A. G. Parkhurst was foreman. Later G. I. Brewster was sole owner. The Appleton brewery located on the Menasha road, just across the canal, was built in 1858 by Mr. Fisher, who sold out to Mr. Meunch in 1860.

In May, 1858, Mayor Amos Story delivered his inaugural message to the common council at Appleton. This was his second inaugural address. He complimented the Council on the growth and prosperity of the young city; deplored the fact that city taxes were high but stated that it seemed necessary in order to improve the streets and to build bridges across the ravines; recommended that the cemetery should be removed from the center of the city to some site outside of Appleton but adjacent thereto; called attention to the importance of building suitable reservoirs and showed how a few fires would burn up much more than such a reservoir would cost; stated that the county board had appropriated $1,000 for the construction of a new and substantial bridge across the Fox river and that the council should assist that project which they could do in many ways, Another important improvement about to be completed was the embankment across College avenue ravine; he thought that $1,000 would be sufficient to complete that work. The question of licenses for the sale of liquor was touched upon lightly by him. He said, “It is a delicate and yet important question for you to decide whether to adopt the policy of granting or withholding licenses to retail intoxicating drinks. It is a new question over which you have exclusive jurisdiction. My own opinion is that if we adopt the policy of licensing we should not allow it to become a monopoly in the hands of any man or set of men; but they all should be licensed indiscriminately who will comply with the legal regulations. Such places, as experiences have universally taught, instead of becoming well regulated establishments are usually halls of dissipation and centers of idleness and vice, particularly to the young, and not infrequently does even the otherwise innocent billiard saloon or grocery hotel become infamous from such unfortunate and pernicious association.” He ended by suggesting that when any improvement was once started it should be prosecuted diligently and well to a finality.

The Crescent declared in June, 1858, that there was more building improvements going on in Appleton this season than in Madison, Fond du Lac, and Oshkosh combined. It challenged those cities to an investigation. In July a petition was circulated asking the common council of Appleton to appropriate $200 in aid of a Saxe-Horn Band. The Crescent having been presented with a kerosene oil lamp, a new article in this county, described the same in the issue of August 21, 1868. It said that it burned coal oil and was much the cheapest lamp brought into the county and that large numbers were selling in this vicinity. One and a half cents of oil, it was stated, would supply a house lamp for an hour and light it better than two sperm candles. Late in August, 1858, nine wagon loads of blackberries passed through Appleton in one day, all bound south. Each wagon contained from twenty to twenty-five bushels. These loads were bound for Oshkosh where the railroad carried the berries to Milwaukee, Chicago and other large markets.

In August an abundance of bear steak was for sale; it was marketed at 12 1/2 cents per pound. In October, 1858, the Crescent boasted that the city of Appleton was not bonded for one dollar; that it had no burdensome tax and that its energies were untrammeled and its resources unabridged. It ended by inviting settlers to come here by the thousands.

Late in 1858 the old Edgarton hotel so well known in the early ’50s, was again opened up by the original and popular landlord, Col. R. P. Edgarton. In December, 1858, the Crescent offered to receive county orders at 10 per cent discount in exchange for subscriptions to that newspaper. This was 20 per cent better than the actual price of the order.

During the ’50s, S. M. Hewlett, a companion of John B. Gough, often visited Appleton and addressed the people on the subject of temperance. He was an extremely strong and eloquent speaker, and was always welcomed and listened to even by the liquor people themselves. The Sons of Temperance usually entertained him while at Appleton. His residence was at Horicon in Dodge county.

In January, 1859, the city was divided on points of law in cases brought to test the validity and merits of the billiard saloon law. There was picked up at Appleton a Spanish copper coin bearing the date of A. D. 1028. Much speculation was indulged in as to, how it came here. Early in February Benjamin F. Taylor, the Illinois poet and well known writer of the Chicago Journal, lectured before the Phoenix Literary society.

On Washington’s birthday, 1859, the pioneers of Appleton held their second annual festival at the National Hotel. Those persons who came here previous to 1851 were considered among the pioneers. A large number gathered on that occasion and enjoyed a splendid repast at the hotel. J. S. Buck presided and numerous toasts were responded to by the old settlers. Among those responding to the toasts were T.P. Bingham, J. S. Buck, Rev. W. H Sampson, George H. Myers, J. M. Stebbins, R. R. Bateman, H. L. Blood, Prof. J. N. Phinney, L. L. Rundall and Samuel Ryan, Jr. It was nearly midnight before the party separated, wholly pleased with the enjoyable occasion. The officers elected for the coming year were as follows: W. H. Sampson, president; T. P. Bingham, vice-president; Samuel Ryan, Jr., secretary.

Early in March, 1859, the most disastrous fire which ever occurred in Appleton up to that date destroyed the Appleton paper mills, three sawmills, the large rake factory, two turning mills, one bedstead factory and other property and buildings. The alarm was given at three o’clock on the afternoon of the 8th, the blaze starting from the upper part of the sawmill known as the Latcher mill in the Third ward. Nothing could be done to save the property after the fire became well started. Hundreds of citizens turned out and labored zealously for hours, but it was impossible to subdue or even check the roaring flames. Part of the machinery of the paper mills was saved in a damaged condition. The total loss was estimated at $16,000.

In March, 1859, prices in Appleton were as follows: Flour from $6 to $7 per barrel; No. 1 wheat $1.18 to $1.25 per bushel; oats 38 to 40 cents per bushel; potatoes 20 to 25 cents per bushel; pork $7 to $7.50 per hundred; beef on the hoof $3 per head; venison 7 to 8 cents per pound; poultry dressed 7 to 8 cents per pound; molasses 62 to 75 cents per gallon; eggs 12 to 14 cents per dozen; kerosene oil $1.40 to $1.50 per gallon. In the spring of 1859 many prominent men and men of capital were visiting Appleton with the view of investing in manufacturing on the valuable waterpower. Strange as it may seem no citizen, so far as known, had yet stored up a considerable quantity of ice for summer use by the public at Appleton. The luxury of such a commodity in hot weather was called to the attention of the people by the papers and it was urged that some business men should store a large quantity for the coming summer’s use to be sold as needed.

It was announced in March that the Bank of Appleton would soon commence operation in this city. It was announced that it would carry on a general banking business and issue its own notes under the state law. Large quantities of maple sugar and syrup were marketed in Appleton. The quality was excellent and the price was low. In a. few instances it was sold as low as 6 cents per pound. The Crescent said that if any of its subscribers wanted to pay up his subscription he could do so with maple sugar or syrup, and agreed to allow 8 cents per pound for sugar and seven shillings per gallon for syrup. The paper said, “Now is the time to make your peace with us.”

Early in April, 1859, the citizens turned out to a large concert given to aid the poor. Circulars were posted, preparations were made on a large scale and the concert was held in the college chapel. Tickets were sold and there was an immense attendance, netting approximately $200. At this concert the Grand Chute band tendered their services and performed in splendid style. Fifteen ladies and gentlemen comprising the best singers in the city volunteered to act as vocalists.

The Outagamie County Bank of Cronkhite & Company was put in operation in Appleton this year. A. H. Cronkhite was president and H. S. Marsh, cashier. In April, 1859, the Bank of Appleton began to issue its circulation though in somewhat limited quantities. The owners contemplated the erection of a fireproof building during the coming summer.

On April 10, 1859, the partnership existing between Samuel Ryan, Jr., James Ryan and John C. Ryan to publish the Crescent and to carry on a job printing business, was dissolved by mutual consent. John C. Ryan retired from the establishment. The business was continued by the other two members of the firm. In April, John C. Ryan, left with a party of Appletonians for the gold region .of the West. He was succeeded by Henry Dodge Ryan, another member of the famous Ryan family.

“The Crescent has entered upon its seventh volume. May it live one thousand years. It is a very pillar of strength to the democrats of Outagamie county. Its manly, uncompromising defense of democratic principles entitles its editors to the gratitude of every friend of the right in Wisconsin.” — (Kenosha Times).

In his inaugural message delivered in April, 1859, Alvin Foster, second mayor of the city of Appleton, made many important observations and recommendations. He dwelt with considerable length on the importance of building streets and roads and keeping them in good condition. He reviewed the finances of the city and made important suggestions. Several bridges, he declared, were necessary to be built at once. He recommended the early removal of the cemetery to a less central location; called attention to the fact that the fire department as shown by the recent large destruction of property was really unequal to the task of quelling any considerable fire; and recommended that permanent provisions should be made for the care of the poor. On the question of license for the sale of spirituous liquor he was somewhat non-committal. At this date it was a subject that people handled gingerly, because many of the best citizens believed that in the end the city must license the sale of liquor.

Mr. Richmond of the Appleton Paper mills which had been recently destroyed by fire issued, a circular stating that within three or four months the mills would be rebuilt and again in operation. This was good news to the people of Appleton. The mayor nominated and the council unanimrously approved the appointment of George H. Myers for city attorney for the ensuing year. In May the news was received that over 160 buildings in the city of Oshkosh were destroyed by fire. In 1859 the currency of Wisconsin was in bad condition and represented all degrees of value from worthless to par. Spanish quarter dollars were quite numerous and passed readily at 20 cents; Spanish shillings and sixpences were worth 10 and 5 cents respectively.

By the middle of June the Good Templars instituted a new lodge at Cronkhite hall. The steamer Menominee brought down a large delegation of temperance people from Neenah and Menasha to superintend the installation. Twenty or thirty persons of both sexes were initiated. The Sons of Temperance a permanent and substantial organization met at this time in Appleton. The hook and ladder colmpany was fully organized and among its members were the most prominent citizens. The company numbered thirty men who held themselves in readiness for prompt action at any time. They had as yet no uniforms but steps were taken to provide them soon. T. C. Dunn was foreman; Robert Smith, assistant foreman: F. C. Meade, treasurer; W. M. Williamson, secretary.

To Edward West was given great credit for clearing up, improving and beautifying the land on the south side of the river opposite Appleton. He made a beautiful park of what previously was a rather unsightly tract of land. Lots were laid out and sold and houses began to go up. In the summer of 1859 among the buildings under process of erection were the residence of P. H. Smith, the residence of J. W. Hutchinson, a block of stores by J. C. Smith, a stave factory by Dunn and Brewster, a hub and spoke factory by J. N. Stebbins, a new paper mill four stories high, a flouring mill and a number of buildings on the south side of the river. In June Douglas & Company made a new addition to Appleton on College avenue in the third ward toward the northwest. There was a general demand in Appleton for the construction of several reservoirs on College avenue to be used in cases of fire.

The liquor law in Wisconsin late in the ’50s was really a license law. It did not recognize prohibition. It was not expected to stop the sale of liquor, but it did design to regulate the liquor traffic. So many people in Wisconsin used beer and other liquor that it was found out of the question ever to pass a prohibitory law or to restrict the sale of beer and other like drinks. Many advocated a low license, but this was believed wrong policy. By placing on a high license irresponsible men would be driven from the trade. This was the view taken by many Appletonians in 1859.

In June, 1859, F. A. Ryan and F. C. Meade announced that a new paper would be issued the first week in July and be called the Appleton Motor. It was announced that it would be issued and the editorials would be conducted by Lafayette C. Meade and that the terms would be $1.50 per year in advance. Ryan and Meade were two young printers of Appleton. It was believed that.the time was ripe for a new paper and especially a republican paper in Outagamie county. The former republican paper was the Free Press. It made a great flourish of trumpets in 1856 but failed to attract general patronage and attention. Owing to the pressure of business at the Milwaukee type factory, the first number’of the Motor was not issued until the last of July, 1859.

The Fourth of July, 1859, was celebrated by nearly 3,000 people on Doty’s Island, the Good Templars taking the lead in the exercises. A large delegation went up from Appleton on the Berlin City and returned in the evening on the Menominee. Another party went up on the Menominee, danced all night at Neenah, went to Oshkosh in the morning and returned on the Berlin City at 12 o’clock on the following day. There was no general celebration at Appleton. “A number of young men in town, disgusted at the want of patriotism presented by the citizens of Appleton, collected a number of instruments and paraded the streets to the most laughable music. They attracted a large share of attention and created an abundance of amusement.” –(Crescent, July 9, 1859).

Early in August, 1859, two men were instantly killed in the Third ward of Appleton by a heavy log which was rolled down a hill upon them. One was a stranger from Green Bay and the other was Hubert Geantier a laboring man of Appleton who left a wife and four children. The first number of the Appleton Motor appeared August 18, 1859, under the management of Ryan & Meade, proprietors. It claimed to be independent. F. C. Meade was editor. On October 15, 1859, Ryan & Meade dissolved partnership and the paper was continued by F. A. Ryan and E. D. Ross.

For the first time in the history of Appleton the merchants in general on August, 1859, agreed to close their stores at 8 p. m. Those who entered the agreement at first were: F. M. McCaughey, Plinney Bros., C. G. Adkins, E. C. Goff, J. C. Smith, P. White, Shaw & Humphrey, J. W. Hutchinson, F. G. Reed, G. M. Smith, and Elliott & McGrath. The saloons did not at this time enter the agreement.

“A good work is going on in the Third ward under the supervision of Theodore Conkey. A dam is being put in and is under way where the mills were destroyed last spring. It is to be so arranged that the boats can run down to the mills, which will be a great accommodation to them. The river is very low at the present time, and the boats are complaining of touching bottom or rocks continually.” (Motor, September 1, 1859.) The citizens voted upon the question of appropriating $700 for the purpose of purchasing an engine and building reservoirs to fight fires. The Second ward gave 72 majority in favor of the appropriation, but the First ward gave 41 majority against it and the Third ward 36 majority against it, thus defeating the measure by 5 votes. At this date S. P. Hart of Appleton killed a bear near that city. The animal was young and weighed about 60 pounds. It made excellent eating according to the statement of those who were permitted to try it. The bear made its appearance in the ravine near College avenue. Late in September the Appleton manufacturing company began the building of a coffer dam preparatory to the construction of a substantial permanent dam across the river just below the central river bridge.

The city council by the vote of the mayor refused to pass an ordinance to license or restrain the sale of intoxicating liquors, thus permitting the traffic to go on without hindrance or without compensation to the city. S. M. Hewlett the well known and popular temperance lecturer addressed a large audience at Cronkhite hall. The address lasted two hours and was extremely interesting.

By November the Appleton Lyceum had a considerable library attached to its reading room. There were several hundred volumes, besides periodicals from all parts of the country. The following appeared in the Crescent December 3, 1859:

An interesting industry at Appleton in 1859 was the manufacture of barrels. The Appleton barrel factory had a capacity of 500 barrels a day. It turned out during the early fall that year about 18,000 barrels which were sold as fast as they could be manufactured. The owners were Dunn & Brewster. They purchased during the previous winter 1,200 cords of oak timber and an immense number of packing staves. They were spending now nearly $10,000 among the farmers for wood of various kinds.

The New Year of 1860 came in with excessive cold. At Appleton on Saturday morning the mercury stood at 20 degrees below zero, Sunday 24 below and Monday 22 below. In January the liquor license at Appleton was fixed by the council at $80 per annum. In February there were employed at Appleton in the stave business alone over 200 men. Adding to these the number engaged in the hub and spoke factory and the planing mills and saw-mills, and it was realized that already Appleton was an important point for the manufacture of wooden articles of every description. “Our city has been considerably interested the present week by some half dozen or more suits in justice courts for the sale of intoxicating liquor without a license. About all the whiskey sellers have been convicted and fined from $10 to $20 and in one or two instances the defendants went to jail because of their inability to pay. Most of the dealers have decided henceforth to sell nothing but beer and ale so that some good has been accomplished.” –(Crescent, March 10, 1860.)

The legislature in 1860 passed an act to set off from Appleton the north tier of sections and annex them to the town of Grand Chute. Almost every resident of that tract was in favor of the change. In April a chair factory and a rake factory were built in Appleton and set in operation. A new flouring mill was owned and operated by Johnston & Company. It was located between the Outagamie and Appleton mills. It stood four stories high and was a substantial structure. Henry D. Ryan who had been connected with the Appleton Crescent almost from its foundation left for the Rocky Mountain gold regions early in April 1860. With him went W. H.Lanphear and Nelson Bates, all promising young men of Appleton. In April the Appleton paper mills again commenced making printing paper. This paper was used by the Crescent for some time during 1860.

At the meeting of the city council held June 2, 1860, there were present the mayor and Aldermen Jewett, Jackson, Hersey, Steffen and Gilmore. George W. Packard presented a petition for opening the street branching from the Menasha and Kaukauna plank road near the city limits. His prayer was granted. At this time Alderman. Jewett presented an ordinance in relation to the issuance of bonds by this city for railroad purposes. The ordinance was carried unanimously. A resolution offered by Alderman Jewett, which was adopted, regulated the license for the sale of spirituous liquors. It was fixed at $80 per annum, but the following provision was added, “provided the common council shall see fit to grant any such license.” Two members of the council voted against this resolution. A committee was appointed to confer with the Appleton Manufacturing Company in regard to the construction of a bridge across Fox river at Appleton in connection with the dam of said company. At this session a license to sell liquor was granted to Van Stratum. At this-time John Jewett, Jr., city attorney-elect, refused to accept the appointment, whereupon George H. Myers was chosen to fill that position. The motion to commence the building of bridges across College avenue ravine was rejected at this date.

At a meeting of the common council of Appleton held August 4, 1860, there was a full attendance of the aldermen. At this meeting the committee previously appointed to investigate and report on the subject of the support of paupers reported. They stated that during the current year the county would probably spend about $1,500 for poor purposes. Of this amount not over $200 would probably be chargeable to the county and the towns. They therefore recommended that paupers temporarily should be taken care of by private persons and be paid for accordingly. They further recolmmended that a tract of land should be purchased at once to be used as a permanent poor-farm. They had made inquiry for sites for such a farm and reported several under consideration. One tract was 50 acres on section 22, range 17, town 21, owned by H.S. Eggleston, about 20 acres of which were under cultivation. That tract could be purchased for about $1,000 on time at 10 per cent. At this session the street commissioner was directed to take the necessary steps to repair the old plank road bridge across Fox river in the Second ward so as to render it passable.

At the session of the common council held August 28, 1860, there were present only a portion of the aldermen, but a quorum was in attendance. The special committee previously appointed to consider the railroad bond question made report and recommended the passage of the following resolution: “Resolved that the mayor be and hereby is authorized to subscribe $15,000 in the stock of the Chicago & Northwestern Riailway Company, payable in the bonds of the city of Appleton, to be issued and delivered to said railway company in accordance with ordinance No. 33 of this city passed June 2, 1860.” At this session the committee reported an ordinance in relation to restraining cattle and horses from running at large during certain seasons of the year. Mary Burke was licensed at this time to sell spirituous liquors. At a meeting of the common council held September 15, 1860, all of the aldermen were present. At this session the council authorized the mayor and clerk to issue the $15,000 in county bonds in aid of the Northwestern Railway. The sum of $250 was appropriated toward the construction of the bridge across College avenue ravine. The sum of $400 was appropriated for repairing the bridge across Fox river in the Second ward. J. P. Buck and others petitioned for the opening of a street to be called Winnebago.

The Fourth of July was duly celebrated at Appleton by all the citizens. There was a procession with music followed by speeches and ending with fire works at night. The celebration was held at Reeder Smith’s park. The principal oration was delivered by Park Benjamin. D. Ballard manufactured and sold large quantities of excellent lime at Appleton. Much to the relief of the merchants at Appleton, the Menasha plank road was put into excellent condition. In September the stave factory was working to its full capacity and was turning out 3,000 barrels a week. The factory was troubled in getting stave bolts and in getting experienced workmen.

At the session of the common council of Appleton held October, the following action was taken: The ordinance to restrain cattle and horses from running at large was taken from the table and was duly passed and became No. 35 of the city. C. G. Hersey, alderman resigned at this session. James Gilmore also resigned at the same time. To fill these vacancies special elections were called in November. They passed an ordinance prohibiting cattle, horses, etc., from running at large in the streets after November 10, 1860. The marshal said the ordinance was all right, but the animals wouldn’t mind it.

At the October session of the common council in 1860, $60 was allowed on the contract for extending the drawbridge across the improvement canal. At this session P. H. Smith, vice-president of the Chicago & Northwestern Railway, presented the bond of that company for the completion of said road to Appleton in compliance with ordinance No. 33 of the city. This bond was duly approved, whereupon the mayor was instructed to deliver $15,000 of the corporate bonds to the duly authorized officers of that company. These bonds were made payable in Chicago and bore 7 per cent interest. They matured annually from 1862 to 1881. The application for the opening of Winnebago street was granted. Large sums were paid out at this time for the improvement of the streets and ravines of Appleton. The petition of Mr. Kavanaugh for a license to retail intoxicating liquors was granted at this session upon the payment of $80, the license fee. The following fire wardens were appointed at this session: First ward, W. M. Russell; Second ward, W. S. Warner; Third ward, James Gilmore. M. H. Lyon was appointed poundmaster.

At a meeting of the common council of Appleton held November 24, 1860, many accounts were allowed. R. Kittridge, it was announced, was elected alderman to fill a vacancy caused by the resignation of James Gilmore. It was ordered in the case of Mary Cole, who had applied to the city for relief, that the aldermen should take her children and bind them out according to the statute in such case made and provided.

The old settlers of Appleton held a large meeting in November, 1860, at the old mammoth store which was vacant at the time. The committee to make arrangements consisted of H. L. Blood, J. M. Phinney, G. H. Myers, J. M. Stebbins, J. C. Johnston, James Gilmore and J. P. Parish. The tickets to the supper and to the entertainment were fixed at $1. W. P. Sampson presided and was assisted by J. M. Stebbins and Samuel Ryan, Jr. A constitution for a permanent association was adopted at this meeting. All who came here prior to 1853 were entitled to membership. The officers elected for the ensuing year were as follows: W. P. Sampson, president; R. R. Bateman and Amos Story, vice-presidents; J. M. Stebbins, secretary; John D. Pierce, O. W. Clark, Anson Ballard, A. B. Everts, John Stephens, Samuel Ryan, Jr., W. S. Warner, G. M. Robinson, Wait Cross and Jackson Tibbits, executive committee. Among the invited guests were Revs. Hamilton, Doe and Himebaugh, pastors of the Baptist, Congregational and Methodist churches respectively of Appleton. Among the historical items brought out at this meeting were the following: Peter White made his first visit to Appleton and spent a night in a tent just below Grand Chute, twenty-three years before. J. M. Stebbins said that the whole force of the neighborhood combined in the arduous task of raising the first mill; this happened eleven years before. Samuel Ryan, Jr., organized and established the first newspaper, the Crescent, in Appleton seven years before. Mr. Stebbins described what the mothers of Appleton had to endure during the years 1848 and 1849. Jackson Tibbits showed that young as Appleton was over a quarter of a million of dollars had been expended on the banks of the river within a distance of a mile and a quarter in river improvements, roads, bridges, college buildings, schoolhouses, mills, factories, etc. He said the natural fall of water by actual measurement was 100,000 cubic feet a minute furnishing 7,200 horsepower. The fall was 70 feet in the distance of a mile. The meeting was enjoyed by all present and the old settlers resolved that annually thereafter a similar meeting should be held.

During the winter of 1860-61, the young ladies and gentlemen of Appleton formed skating parties and enjoyed the sport on the adjacent ponds, lake and river. All the citizens of Grand Chute town of Appleton who dated their residence here previous to January 1, 1860, were requested to register their names and become members of the “Pioneer Association” by paying the sum of ten cents. Venison steak was in great abundance in Appleton in December, 1860. Scores of deer were slaughtered without mercy by the rapacious hunters and the carcasses were marketed at the county seat. “The sportsmen hereabouts have been committing sad ravages with the deer since the first fall of snow. Many of these animals have been brought into town and are selling at $4 per 100 pounds, the same as beef.” –(Crescent). In December a large panther was killed near Appleton. “The postoffice war in this city grows warmer and the aspirants increase in number. ‘Honest Old Abe’ will probably be obliged to compromise matters by keeping John Elliot in office.” –(Crescent).

At the January session, 1861, of the city council the following proceedings were had: Bates and Williamson were paid $600 on their contract to build the bridge over College avenue ravine. Bids for repairing the river bridge in the Second ward were called for. In February the board awarded the last contract to C. P. Riggs whose bid was lowest –$2,250. The council became engaged in a row over the consideration of the returns of a special election in the Third ward; the matter was finally postponed indefinitely. Care of the drawbridge across the canal was provided. Plans for fire reservoirs were ordered prepared. In April the city treasurer reported that the receipts for 1860-1 were $16,148, less about $350, and the expenses were $14,499. In May the new mayor and board assumed control of city affairs. A resolution to put College avenue in better condition was postponed. The Crescent was chosen the official city organ. Certain paupers were “farmed out.” A resolution introduced by Alderman Pierce appropriating $5,000 for the support of the families of volunteers was defeated, four aldermen voted for the appropriation and four against it; the mayor gave the casting vote against it.

In January, 1861, a petition was circulated in Appleton to which many names were signed, asking the legislature to set off in a separate ward all that portion of the city south of the river and to call the same the Fourth ward. The bridge commissioners let the contract for rebuilding the old portion of the Second ward river bridge to C. P. Riggs at the price of $2,250. One bid was as high as $3,900. It was announced about the middle of February that a woolen factory would soon be established at Appleton and that the machinery would cost about $6,000. The location selected was immediately below and adjoining the Second ward river bridge. This factory was welcomed because it was believed its presence would stimulate the raising of sheep.

Ryan Brothers & Company took charge of Crescent in April, 1861 —James Ryan, H. D. Ryan, J. A. Watrous. Major S. Ryan, Jr., retired from the publication, but devoted all his spare time to the editorial department.

“All that part of the territory included within the corporate limits of the city of Appleton, which lies south of the center of the main channel of Fox river, is hereby set off from the First and Third wards of said city and organized into a separate ward to be called the Fourth ward of the city of Appleton.” Officers for this ward were ordered elected in April, 1861. Full provision for the organization of the ward was made by the legislature. “That part of the First ward of said city described as lots 3, 4 and 5 in block I in the recorded plat of Appleton is hereby taken off from said First ward and attached to the Second ward of said city and shall be and remain to all intents and purposes a part of the said Second ward.” Approved March 19, 1861.

In March, 1861, the Appleton-Kansas relief committee made the following report: This committee was composed of the following citizens: R. Z. Mason, chairman; G. R. Shaw, James McDonald and S. E. Beach:

At this time H. F. Patton executed several oil paintings of superior merit at Appleton. He was one of the first artists to locate in this city. He had been previously in New York City where he was ranked among the most successful artists.

In his inaugural message in May, 1861, Mayor Batemen made many important observations and recommendations. He stated that the city had voted almost unanimously to issue bonds of $20,000 to aid the construction of the railroad to this point, and that the common council had authorized him to issue $15,000 in such bonds. This amount had been issued and turned over to the railroad. The bonds drew 7 per cent interest and were payable in Chicago. A bill which had passed the legislature authorized the citizens to retire annually a small amount of these bonds in addition to the interest. The mayor called attention to the importance of having good roads from the city to all portions of the country districts. He also insisted that the roads and bridges of Appleton needed repair and should be attended to immediately. He suggested that two large reservoirs should be built on College avenue to supply water in case of fire. He recommended that the cemetery be removed from its present center of location and reiterated his former views concerning licensing the sale of liquor. He noticed some discrepancy in the management of city finances whereby it seemed that the city was short nearly $1,300.

By the last of June the building for the woolen mill was rapidly approaching completion. Mr. Huntington from the East was employed to put in the machinery and run the mill by Mr. Hutchinson, the owner. Woolen factories throughout the country were overrun with orders for clothing for the army. The woolen factory was planned to be 30 by 50 feet and four stories high. Work thereon was commenced in February and it was expected to be ready for operation by June. In June and July, during harvest, hands were paid $2.50 to $3 per day. This was something new here, but it continued during the subsequent seasons.

In July, Mr. Bates of Appleton found while digging seventeen feet below the surface of the courthouse square a cedar tree about six inches in diameter. The question was asked, How came it there? William H. Mullane of Appleton was drowned in Fox river about two miles above the falls. While fishing he was thrown into the water and being unable to swim sank immediately and did not come to the surface. It was stated in July that the estimated quantity of flour to be shipped from Appleton this year would reach seventy thousand barrels. There was shipped in April, May and June, 1858, over 25,000 barrels; the same months in 1859, over 30,000 barrels; and the same months in 1860, over 45,000 barrels. Wheat and other products in proportion were shipped at that time.

The council in July, 1861, ordered Winnebago street to be opened. New bonds to take the place of the old railway bonds to the amount of $15,000 were ordered. Plans for a bridge over the south branch of Fox river along the old plank road were ordered prepared, provided Edward West would quit claim to the city his interest in said road. The sum of $40 was appropriated to Mrs. James Whitworth for use in certain volunteer measures considered. Special appropriations for families of volunteers were made in September.

“The Outagamie County Bank of A. A. Cronkhite has kerfluncked! This interesting circumstance to the tune of upward of $14,000 occurred last Monday morning, the bank failing to open. The Berlin and Neenah banks were closed simultaneously with this. To say that our citizens were outraged would not express the general feeling. The utmost confidence was had in the bank and depositors felt perfectly safe with their certificates. Mr. Cronkhite asks a suppression of opinion until he can meet a committee of the depositors on Saturday.” –(Crescent, June 29, 1861). The creditors finally accepted Mr. Cronkhite’s proposition, at least two-thirds of them did, and accordingly steps to carry such proposition into effect were taken by Mr. Packard, agent of the banker. Mr. Cronkhite, through his attorney, Mr. Packard, proposed to settle with all creditors at 50c on the dollar, payable out of the assets of the bank, the balance to be given in notes of one, two and three years. The proposition was at first rejected, the creditors believing they could do better.

In August a party of hunters from Appleton and vicinity went to Bear Lake some twenty miles to the north where they camped and engaged in hunting for deer, bear, etc. Early in August the thermometer at Appleton ranged from 100 to 104 ° in the shade. It was the hottest day recorded for many years.

In September United States Treasury notes began to make their appearance at Appleton. They were recommended because there was a great lack of the necessary currency to meet the demands of commerce. The new bridge over the second channel was constructed and the old one was raised temporarily so as to be repaired. The contract was let to Frank Allen for $440. The new bridge was to be completed by May, 1862.

Late in November, 1861, the Rev. Napoleon Mignault lectured in Adkins Hall. He was chaplain of the Irish Brigade of the Wisconsin Regiment and was introduced by Rev. Louis Dael. His reputation had preceded him and he received a most enthusiastic reception. The subject of his lecture was “The Irish at Home and in America.” It was one of the most eloquent ever delivered in Appleton and was received with unbounded applause. He held up in graphic terms the wrongs done the Irish by the English people.

At the November session, 1861, the council rescinded the resolution adopted in June to appropriate $1,000 for the relief of the families of volunteers; the vote stood 5 to 2. The plats of Kimball’s and Bateman’s additions to Appleton were approved.

In December, 1861, the council was petitioned by fifty citizens to remove John D. Pierce from the office of alderman if after investigation charges of bad conduct on his part were substantiated. Packard prosecuted and Jewett defended. After several adjournments the case was finally considered and he was formally expelled from the council. A. G. Parkhurst succeeded him.

Late in January, 1862, the woolen factory was in full operation here and a large amount of carding was done. Its work was pronounced excellent and far superior to anything of the kind that could be done by hand. The price of wool had gone up amazingly and farmers began to purchase sheep; in fact there was at this date an extremely strong demand for good wool sheep. During January a large amount of wheat was marketed at Appleton. The price which had been down very low commenced to go up and farmers took advantage of the rise. It was brought to town often with ox teams. It was no uncommon thing to see twenty or thirty ox teams at one time on the streets of Appleton. The new shingle machine was ready to go into operation. It had a capacity of 40,000 shingles per day. A petition was circulated in Appleton asking for the repeal of the city charter on the ground of excessive taxation. The newspapers decried this action as hasty and ill-advised.

Late in February, Hon. Amos Story, the first mayor of Appleton, long a prominent citizen, died, and meetings were held to voice the general regret of the community at his departure. The Crescent of February 21 said that the snow at that time was twenty inches deep on the level, and that the sleighing after the snow was packed was never better. As a result of the visit of the postmaster and others to Washington early in 1862, it was announced that improved mail facilities would be instituted at once in this county and daily mail would be put on between Appleton and New London. The Osborn and Oneida routes were also to be opened during the coming summer. Appleton asked to be connected with numerous other points throughout this portion of the state. As a whole the visit down east was productive of good results.

In March, 1862, many drunken Indians were again seen on the streets of Appleton. The citizens began to make investigations in order to find who was violating the law in selling liquor to them. It had been found necessary in several cases in order to prevent the Indians from freezing to death, to arrest them and place them in jail until they became sober. The newspapers denounced this state of affairs in strong terms.

At last they found that a prominent citizen of Appleton was guilty, whereupon he was arrested, convicted and fined $10 and cost. This did not seem to stop the drunkenness, because within less than a week thereafter several Indians were seen intoxicated on the street.

An extensive fire late in May destroyed the building owned by David Whitney. The total damage was about $500. This served to call attention to the fact that Appleton was without certain fire fighting apparatus.

Early in March, 1862, several of the leading citizens of Appleton, including the postmaster, went to Washington for the purpose of improving the wretched condition of the mail service in this county. There had been complaint for six months that newspapers and letters were continually lost, mislaid or never carried at all.

In March, 1862, the council extended the time for the payment of taxes thirty days. At this time the injunction suit of W. S.Warner to restrain the treasurer from collecting certain taxes against him was pending. Two men were sent to Madison to represent the interests of Appleton in matters pending before the Legislature. It was voted to allow licenses to sell liquor; the license was fixed at $80.

Early in August, 1862, the telegraph line was extended to Green Bay, thus connecting that city with the outside world including Appleton.

In September, 1862, the council met to consider, specially the side track question; a committee of three was appointed to confer with the railway officials. Full proceedings were had for the enrollment throughout the county of men liable for military duty, and a full record of families of soldiers was ordered prepared.

At a meeting of the common council in December the following action was taken: Several saloon licenses were granted; the price at this time was $50 for a license. The finance committee were instructed to receive proposals for medicines and surgical and medical attendance upon poor persons throughout the county. James Gilmore was appointed special agent on behalf of the city to attend to the wants of the families of volunteers who enlisted from this city. Much complaint arose concerning the tax roll. To meet this condition of affairs the city council took steps to correct the roll for Appleton for the year 1862.

Late in December a hook and ladder company was demanded for Appleton; steps to organize one were taken. The barrel factory turned out about 800 barrels per day which found a ready market. T. R. Hudd was notified by the city council to prepare a new charter to be presented to the Legislature for their adoption or rejection. All persons who had claims on the defunct Outagamie county bank and who had signed an agreement to settle at 50 cents on the dollar with Cronkhite & Company, were requested to hand to Anson Ballard the proved statement of such claims. H. S. Marsh and A. Galpin were trustees of the bank.

At the session of the common council in January, 1863, the following proceedings were had: Alderman Gilmore made his report as agent of the city for the relief of families of volunteers. He presented his bill for supplies furnished which amounted to $119.23. This amount was duly appropriated by the city council. J. S. Buck, city clerk, was allowed $75 for preparing the new tax roll for the year 1862. The committee on finance reported that there were large sums due the several districts, the aggregate amount being about $2,500. At this time there were granted numerous licenses for the sale of liquor by the city council. It was therefore now resolved, “that we deem it for the best interests of the city not to grant any more licenses for the sale of ardent spirits and that the present board will not consider any further applications for such licenses.” At this session large sums were allowed for the care of the poor throughout the country. The board in April, 1863, found that the whole number of votes cast for mayor in the First ward was 99, of which William Johnson received 98 and one illegal vote was cast; in the Second ward Johnson received 167 out of 167 polled; in the Third ward he received 84 out of 84 polled. Samuel Ryan, Jr., and W. S. Warner were justices of the peace at this time. At the April session Mr. Gilmore reported having spent for the families of volunteers $125.24. The amount was allowed. The following resolition was passed: “That there be and hereby is appropriated to James Gilmore the sum of $30 from the poor fund for services rendered in furnishing relief and looking after the interests of the families of volunteers from this city, the same being in full for services for the past six months.” In the spring Julius S. Buck was city clerk; Thomas Hanna street commissioner. The Crescent was selected as the official organ of the county.

In January, 1863, the leading merchants of Appleton signed an agreement not to pay out any checks commonly called shinplasters, on and after February 10, 1863. They agreed to substitute in their place United States postal currency. Senator Hudd introduced in the legislature a bill to amend the Appleton city charter. This bill had been discussed here thoroughly and was expected to make many improvements in the government and administration of affairs. William S. Warner was licensed agent for soldiers’ bounties, pensions, back-pay and other claims at Appleton. In January, 1863, John Verstegen completed his large flouring mill at Little Chute. It had two runs of stone and an extra run could be put in whenever required. J. M. Barker erected the mill.

The common council in February granted several licenses to sell liquor. Several remonstrances were offered, were duly considered, but were not allowed to influence the action of the council. The sum of $200 was appropriated for the repair of the plank road within the corporate limits. Dr. John Sutherland’s bid for furnishing medicines and medical and surgical attendance to poor people within the city limits was accepted. The following resolution was passed: That the sheriff of Outagamie county be and is hereby requested to allow the city the use of the county jail for a lock-up until such time as the city may provide other premises for such purposes.

In his inaugural message in April Mayor William Johnston referred to the unhappy condition of the country owing to the Civil War. He showed how the horrors and sorrows had extended to this county and city and expressed the belief that in the end all would be well. He urged that summary steps for the protection of property against fires by the organization of a suitable fire company should at once be made. He stated that the streets and bridges were in unusually good condition. Notwithstanding the former indebtedness of the city had been paid and large outlays have been made for construction of bridges, the financial situation of the city was unusually satisfactory. The total deficiency in the city during the fiscal year was in round numbers $1,000. The surplus amounted to $1,518. He stated that the city was never more prosperous and that business of all kinds was never more profitable. The railroad had given new impulses to every branch of business and had brought large accessions to the population. He recommended that the 4th of July and other commemorative days should be duly celebrated. He said, “To keep alive this patriotism in our hearts and in the hearts of our children I hope the day will be celebrated in a suitable and becoming manner in this city. I, therefore, recommend that you will favor and encourage the celebration of the anniversary of our national independence in such a manner as to reflect credit upon the place and worthy of the occasion.”

In 1863 the photograph mania took possession of Appleton. Hall and Patton excelled in the art and as it was something new here everybody patronized them until the papers declared that the people had “wellnigh gone crazy on the subject.” On April a fire company was organized. The following officers were chosen: L. S. Lester, foreman; W. H. Lanphear, first assistant; L. P. White, second assistant; A. L. Smith, secretary; C. L. Fay, treasurer. The council was asked to give the necessary encouragement to this company. In April there was a general demand that some person should provide a hearse. Thus far none had been brought here. The Crescent said, “Considering all things we think the present arrangement an outrage on humanity. The idea of a town of 3,000 inhabitants bearing their dead to the grave on a truck, dray, or something little better, is revolting to the better feelings of our nature.” Under the amended charter it was necessary to elect new justices of the peace. Accordingly an election for that purpose was called for.

At the session of the common council in April, the newly organized fire company was recommended to appoint a committee to take the necessary steps toward purchasing an engine. As the marshal and treasurer failed to qualify within the time required by law, their offices were declared vacant. Mr. Pryce was appointed marshal and James Gilmore poor-master of the city in accordance with the provision of the new charter. Liquor licenses were granted. The appointment of the treasurer was deferred until the next meeting.

There was much complaint this spring from hotel keepers because they had not been paid for boarding soldiers during the formation of companies. Thomas Hanna stated in May that he had not been paid for boarding men who enlisted with Captain Pomeroy, nor for a number of others since boarded by him. He asked to be reimbused for his outlay. The Appleton woolen factory was in active operation and doing an enormous business. Farmers were alive to the value of sheep and wool and already scores of them owned flocks and herds and brought large quantities of wool to the Appleton market and to the woolen factory. Mr. Hutchinson was manager of the factory. Many new buildings were erected in different parts of Appleton, and as a whole the city was growing rapidly. Strangers were pouring in every day looking for business locations and residences. In the country the growth seemed unabated.

In the act of March 27, 1863, to consolidate, revise and amend the act incorporating Appleton and its various amendments, the following boundary was given to the city: All of sections 25, 26, south half of section 27, and all of sections 34, 35 and 36, town 21 north, range 17 east. The boundaries of the four wards already in existence were confirmed; municipal elections were ordered held the first Tuesday of April of each year; the duties of all officers were prescribed; the powers of the common council were set forth; taxation, assessment and finances were provided for; city improvements of all kinds were arranged, etc., etc. About the same time the Legislature vacated that portion of Outagamie lying between lots 2 and 3 in P. H. Smith’s addition.

In May the common council of Appleton assembled and began to count the ballot that was voted in April. A. Galpin was chosen president of the council; J. S. Buck was elected clerk. The Appleton Crescent was made the official journal of the city. The bond of the city treasurer was fixed at $10,000. Several liquor licenses were granted. The application of the fire company which was accompanied by its constitution and list of members was duly presented. The company was duly recognized by the council. The Appleton fire company was fully organized and was now one of the permanent fixtures of the city. At the session of the council in May the following action was taken: A considerable sum was appropriated to aid poor families. Salaries of city officers were paid in part. The following petition of the fire organization was received and confirmed by the council: “To the honorable mayor and common council of the city of Appleton.” At the meeting of the fire department held Friday, May 8, 1863, the following persons received the nomination of the respective offices: H. H. Lee, chief engineer; J. S. Buck, first assistant; and E. C. Goff, second assistant. At this date John S.Lester was foreman and A. L. Smith secretary of Fire Company No. 1.

In June Appleton made. elaborate preparations to celebrate the coming Fourth of July. On that day an enormous crowd gathered. The day was opened with a salute from the cannon and the raising of flags. The morning trains brought large crowds, and the country around sent full delegations. A brass band was present and a carriage containing young ladies representing the different states passed through the streets in the procession. A body of Calathumpians with red jackets and masks gave a humorous exhibit while the procession was marching. Little Chute sent probably the largest delegation. Buck’s Military Band and the Dale Band were in the procession. The line marched to Reeder Smith’s park where Judge Collins delivered the principal address. Others spoke to the large crowd assembled and a splendid dinner was served on the grounds by Cleggett Johnston. The Ladies’ Soldiers Aid society also dispensed food and thus raised means to aid the soldiers’ families. The fire company was out and managed to throw water 180 feet. At night a splendid display of fireworks under the supervision of Mr. Carhart was exhibited in the College grounds to about three acres of people. A dance at Adkins hall closed the ceremonies of the day. It was stated in June that Mr. Pettibone’s trade at Appleton for the year past amounted to a total of $43,000. This was mentioned as an evidence of the large business done at Appleton and of the good results of judicious advertising. Early in June a large fire engine was purchased at Milwaukee for the city. The company adopted the name Lawrence Engine Company No. 1. The officers of that company selected and purchased the engine.

In July another large fire occurred. It broke out in the woolen factory at 1 o’clock in the morning, and before anything could be done it made such headway that the fire department could not control it. The flames spread rapidly and soon reached other buildings. It enveloped the iron foundry of Mr. Ketchum and though desperate efforts were made to check it by the fire company and a score of citizens, that structure was also destroyed. The loss to the foundry, was about $5,000 and to the woolen factory about $10,000. The total loss was nearly $20,000. It was shown during this fire that the city’s single engine was not sufficient by any means to control a fire well started in any large building. In July, 1863, F. A. Ryan of the Appleton Motor sold his interests to E. D. Ross who thereafter continued to issue the paper as a republican organ.

At the October session of the city council of Appleton, 1863, the following proceedings were had, to-wit: The special committee on finance made a report in relation to the conduct of the treasurer and recommended the purchase of a building to be used as an engine house. The report was accepted. The amount to be paid for the building was $350, which was appropriated from the general fund. The city attorney was instructed to take the necessary legal steps to recover the amount spent for a pauper belonging to the town of Neenah. In November Appleton city orders and Outagamie county orders were bought almost at par. They were thus almost as good as greenbacks and circulated almost equally as well. The old days of 50c on the dollar for public script had gone forever.

Complaint was made by the three papers in November because the business men of Appleton did not take more interest in the new fire company. They seemed to be content to insure their property and take their chances of its destruction by fire. The pioneers of Appleton met November 17 for the purpose of expressing their esteem for Dr. S. E. Beach who died at Nashville, Tennessee, November 3. Dr. Beach had previously resided in Appleton, but had first gone to Kansas.

At the November session of the city council of Appleton the following action was taken: The committee on finance reported the amounts necessary to be levied as taxes for the ensuing year. Amounts were appropriated for the support of paupers farmed out to private individuals. The special committee on fire organization was instructed to let the job of moving the engine house and rebuilding the chimney, etc., for a sum not exceeding $100.

Mr. Gilbert of the Gilbert House, Appleton, leased the Angier Rouse of New London and removed to that village in January, 1864. The young people of Appleton in November organized skating parties and had prepared a park of about four acres on the island just below the new woolen mill. Many skating parties were held there during the winter. In the small trees which were left standing, lanterns were hung at night so that the skating and sport could continue after dark. A price was charged for admission to the park. Late in November another heavy fire occurred along Appleton water power. A sawmill, planing mill, sash, door, blind and lath factory anid other business houses were destroyed. The total loss aggregated about $15,000. The engine company was wholly unequal to the task of conquering this fire.

It is probable that there was not a city in the Northwest more independent than Appleton was during the Civil War. She manufactured her own clothes, flannels, leather, flour, lumber, lath, wagons, stoves, plows, axes, knives, rakes, ox bows and yokes, chairs, tables, bureaus, bedsteads, pumps, barrels, printing and wrapping paper, etc. The Crescent said “We can dress everybody, can whip everybody, can scoop all creation on water power, can beat the united West on educational facilities, boast of prettier women, smarter men, more go-ahead inhabitants and a handsomer town than all creation — not excepting even Boston. All we want to make our joy complete is a side track from the railroad to the water power, a road through the woods to Menasha, a military road to Lake Superior, and an oil mill to grease our whole machinery.”

At the December session of the common council, 1863, the following proceedings were had: A memorial was received from David Smith and others for the construction of a branch railroad track to the water power. This memorial was referred to a special committee. The council voted for city superintendent of schools with the following result: Whole number of votes cast, 7; R. Z. Mason received 6; H. B. Williams, 1. Steps to repair the drawbridge in the Fourth ward were taken. James Gilmore, city poor master, reported having paid out a total of $163.33. He was allowed this amount by the city council.

It was in January, 1864, that the people of Appleton began to demand the construction of a bridge across the river at or near the paper mills, in order to draw the travel and trade from the town of Buchanan and from a large section of country to the southward. For several winters beginning about 1858, C. G. Adkins, J. C. Smith and Jerrard & Kellogg packed more or less pork at Appleton. In 1863-4 several thousand head were packed by these business men.

During the year 1863 F. & C. Pfennig, millers of Appleton, ground and shipped to market a little more than 30.000 barrels of flour. This was considered an enormous business. In December a woman of A pDleton was arraigned before Justice Warner charged with selling liquor to Indians. She was found guilty and sentenced to pay a fine of $25 and costs or be confined in the county jail until such fine was paid. She refused to pay and was accordingly sent to the county jail. Late in December green wood sold on the streets of Appleton for $1.75 to $2 per cord. Rolla A. Law, formerly political editor of the Crescent, was at this time connected with a paper at Chicago. He visited Appleton in September 1863. On January 1, 1864, early in the morning the mercury at Appleton stood at 34 degrees below zero. This was the coldest day this locality had ever witnesed within the memory of white men. In February, 1854, the mercury reached 32 degrees below zero. The cold at that time was so great and so long-continued that wood advanced to the enormous price of $1 per cord, said the Crescent.

The members of Lawrence Engine Company No. I prepared to hold their first annual festival on Washington’s birthday, 1864. The committee of arrangements were A. L. Smith, J. S. Lester, W. H. Lanphear and T. W. Briggs. The firemen’s first annual festival was pronounced a great success. An immense assemblage of people gathered at the woolen mill where the evening was pleasantly passed. The supper was bountiful and was enjoyed by a large number of persons. The net proceeds were large enough to enable the boys to fit their quarters up in excellent style. J. F. Johnston became landlord of the Crescent Hotel in Appleton in February. He immediately refitted and refurnished the house and made it one of the best in the northern part of the state.

The fifth annual festival of the pioneers of Appleton was held in Crescent Hotel in March. J. F. Johnston and lady proprietors of the hotel, served a splendid repast. Many toasts were responded to by the old settlers. Colonel Blood served as chairman and Samuel Boyd acted as toastmaster. Those responding to toasts were A. Galpin, Mayor Johnston, J. Tibbits, T. R. Hudd, Mr. Brewster, John Stephens, Rev. S. Fallows, Samuel Boyd, G. M. Robinson and others. Senator Hudd responded to the toast “The Bar of Outagamie County,” and according to the Crescent surpassed himself in his response. His eloquent remarks kindled rapturous applause. During this meeting it was stated that H. L. Blood, on the 19th of August, 1848, cleared a place in the woods where Appleton now stood and built there a shanty; that on the 29th of August, J. F. Johnston moved into town; that the first sermon was preached October 8th, same year, by Rev. W. H. Sampson; that the first election was held at Johnston’s Hotel where the whole town later celebrated Christmas by taking a sleigh-ride in an ox-sled. The pioneers at this meeting unanimously voted to rechristen the hotel. They insisted that it should hereafter be called the Johnston House after the oldest settler of the city. A letter from William H. Sampson was read at this meeting, in which he stated he came here in a little Indian canoe over lake Butte des Morts and helped to break the ground for the first building of Lawrence University. In this letter he said, “Happy greeting to all old pioneers of Appleton. Smiles for our friends, pity for our enemies, and the blessings of heaven upon all; stars and stripes to the breeze, bayonets to the charge, loyalists to the front, and rebels in the last ditch.”

The act of March 23, 1864, authorized Appleton to issue bonds not exceeding $50,000 for the purpose of aidiing in the construction of railroads to, through, or from such city and the construction of any sidetrack of any railroad to and along Fox river or the canal and the construction of any plank road, earth road or other roads and the construction of any public improvement in, through, or from said city. Full provisions for the issuance of such bonds were made.

In 1864 the act to incorporate Appleton was amended as follows: “The elective officers of said city shall be one mayor, one city clerk, one city treasurer, one city assessor, and one marshal for the city, and one justice of the peace and two aldermen for each ward.” All other officers were to be appointed by the council. Justices were to be elected for two years; anl the others for one year each. The first election under this law was ordered held the first Tuesday of April, 1864.

The quantity of timber shipped from Appleton to Chicago in the spring of 1864 by railway was enormous. Large quantities were brought the previous winter through the northern portion of the county and now suddenly the time to market it arrived. Many thousands of staves, barrels, rakes, hubs, brooms, hoe handles, etc., were manufactured from this timber. It was a better crop it was stated than wheat, barley, rye or other grain. David Smith & Company were bankers in the spring. They called their institution “The Appleton Bank,” and advertised money to loan. They bought first real estate mortgages on improved city property and good farm property in this county. J. S. Lester was elected chief engineer of the Lawrence Engine company and W. M. Russell, M. H. Lyon and G. H. Ketchum fire wardens.

At the session of the common council in May, 1864, the following proceedings were had: The inaugural address by Mayor Johnson was delivered. M. H. Lyon was elected street commissioner. A city printer and a city physician were elected and a large appropriation for the care of paupers was made. The officers chosen by the fire department were acepted by the council. Appleton and Superior streets were ordered opened. There was a demand in April that the indiscriminate sale of liquor in Appleton without license should be stopped. Men were carrying on the business regardless of license and hence were under no moral restraint to maintain good order or regulate the traffic. This state of things was caused by the carelessness of the city council. A competent engineer showed that the cost of the side track through the great ravine near the Second ward boundary to the dam above the Pfennig flour mill would be about $37,900. This was more than expected and led to a careful consideration of the value and desirability of the improvement. In May a sturgeon weighing over 30 pounds was speared at the upper water power in Appleton.

Strange as it may seem lumber at Appleton in June was extremely scarce, although in fact large quantities were manufactured here and elsewhere in the county; it was nearly all shipped to large distributing markets such as Chicago. There was a strong demand for three reservoirs to be built on College avenue, for protection against fire.The summer thus far was extremely dry and the city was in excellent shape for a conflagration. The Crescent cried out, “Give us a reservoir, most potent and venerable aldermen, before it will be everlastingly too late! Water, Water!” The report of the city treasurer in June showed that a total of $18,337 was received less $261 on hand at the beginning of the year. The expenses during the fiscal year were $17,903. In the summer of 1864 enormous quantities of wool arrived at Appleton and were purchased at the woolen factory. One large wagon load came from Cato, not far from Morristown.

About the last of April the new Appleton Woolen Factory was finished and almost ready for operation. It was much larger and better than the former building, and was a credit to all connected with its construction. It was built by G. W. Spaulding through his agent J. W. Hutchinson. The building was 45×105 feet, three stories high; J. M. Barker was the architect. The factory was fully prepared for all kinds of work usually done by institutions of that character.

About the middle of April the firemen of Appleton held a parade through the city streets, but the mud was so deep that the newspapers ridiculed the display. On August, 1864, H. L. Blood became proprietor and host of the Johnston House. The Johnstons made many friends while in charge of this hotel and their departure to Minnesota Junction was greatly regretted. The Machine Shop in Appleton was located on the island and was about 60×30 feet and two stories high. It was owned by O. B. C. Ketchum in 1865. It was commenced in 1857 but was destroyed by fire in July 1863. The Woolen Factory was erected in 1861 by Mr. Hutchinson; the building and machinery were valued at $12,000. It was burned in July 1863, including the entire stock, but was rebuilt bv G. W. Spaulding on an enlarged scale in 1864. The new establishment was about 65×45 feet and two add one-half stories high. In addition there was a dye-house about 40×28 feet one story high. The amount of business done in 1864 was approximately $40,000.

The Sash, Door & Blind Factory was located near the Upper Bridge and immediately south of Riggs’ Sawmill. Tt was built in the spring of 1856 by Cross and Bartlett. There were many changes in the ownership in after years. In 1864 Mr. Filler secured an interest and became associated with Mr. Cross in the ownership.

Riggs’ Sawmill was built in the year 1848 or 1849 for Amos A. Lawrence of Boston. It was the first building erected on the water power in Appleton. It was designed to meet the early wants of the first settlers. It had numerous owners in after years. In 1852 it passed to Tibbits & Phelps; in 1858 Mr. VWells secured it; C. R. Riggs owned it in 1864.

The Gerard Hub & Spoke Factory was located on the Island near the machine factory and was owned by I. J. Gprard in 1864. It measured about 30×50 feet and was two stories high.

Darling’s Sawmill was located near the west end of the lower dam; it was about 40×80 feet, two stories high and was built in 1858 by Sampson & Sebuth. It was owned by Mr. Darling in 1860 and afterward by others.

The paper mill was near the east end of the lower dam; it was built in 1831 and was four stories high. The business increased from about $30,000 the first year to $75,000 in 1864. Printing and wrapping paper was manufactured in 1864 and the concern was owned by G. N., C. P. and T. Richmond.

Turner Chair Factory was erected by E. J. Ettinger in 1860; it was about 40×60 feet, two and a half stories high and located near the north end of the Upper bridge. Here were manufactured chairs and bedsteads principally for the Chicago market.

The skating park prepared by Edward West, upon which he had spent $400, proved to be a failure owing to its unfavorable surroundings.

The Enos tannery was on the canal between the Upper and Lower bridges. It was built in the spring of 1862 by E. W. Enos, was 74×34 feet and two stories high; additions were afterwards made. The business increased from $10,000 in 1862 to over $50,000 in 1864. In September 1864 Enos sold out to Gurnee and Hayes of Chicago.

Kamp’s Tannery was located east of Enos’ Tannery, and was built in 1861 by E. Kamp; it was about 25×60 feet. After September 1864 the business was conducted by Messrs. Kamp Brothers & Nass.

The Hub & Spoke Factory was built by J. M. Stebbins in 1859 and the machinery was brought from Depere in the fall of 1860. It was sold to M. R. Barton, who carried on the business until August 1864, when he sold out to J. M. Heath.

The Bedstead and Cabinet Factory was the second building erected on the water power at Appleton. It was located between Riggs’ Sawmill and the Willy flour mill, and was built in the fall of 1850 by Eggleston & Robinson. Thomas W. Brown secured an interest in it in 1856; it passed through several hands and in 1864 was owned by Eggleston & Blish.

The Rake Factory at the east end of Grand Chute dam was erected by Clarke & Simpson in the winter of 1863-4. It was then 36×60 feet and three stories high. Later an addition was made, increasing the dimensions to 36×90 feet. In 1864 Mr. Johnson bought the building, after which the business was carried on by Clark & Johnson. The annual business in 1865 amounted to about $60,000.

The Genessee Mills were built by Conkey and Clark in 1853 and were sold to F. & C. Pfennig in 1856. They were still the owners in 1864. The building was originally 40×30 feet and three stories high; later it was made 70×32 feet and other changes were made. By 1865 the mill had a daily capacity of 700 barrels of flour per week.

Willy’s Flour Mill was west of the stone mill near the upper bridge. It was the third building erected on the Appleton water power, and was built in the fall of 1852 by Isaac Beach, and was 30×40 feet, two and one-half stories high above the basement. The mill often changed hands and in 1864 was owned by Willy & Brewster, who did business under the name of Willy & Co.

The Lawrence Flour Mill was built in 1860 by Johnson & Morey; the building was 30×60 feet and four stories high. The stone in its foundation was obtained from the bed of the river adjacent. Mr. Morey became sole proprietor in 1864.

The Outagamie Mill was erected in 1852 by Franklin Proctor and was carried on for several years as an axe factory. In May 1857 it was sold to Dillon, Nass & Co., who changed it to a flouring mill. In 1864 it was owned by M. R. Bartieu.

At a meeting held early in February, 1865, a cemetery association was formed by the following named persons: David Smith; J. S. Buck; R. Z. Mason; Anson Ballard; William Johnston; C. L. Fay; B. Douglas; L. Randall; S. H. Whittlesev; S. L. Fuller; E. C. Goff; L. L. Randall; J. W. HutchinsonG. I. Brewster; G. W. Spaulding and James Gilmore. The name adopted was Riverside Cemetery Association. Nine directors were decided upon. The association was fully organized at this time.

The Foundry and Machine Shop was opened by Wilson & Barron and was 30×84 feet with a. wing 16 feet square. It was run in connection with a blacksmith shop. This building was commenced in September 1864 and was in operation during the following winter.

Glines’ Wagon Shop was built in 1856 by W. C. Cooke, and was 24×34 feet, two stories high. It manufactured wagons, buggies and sleighs. In 1863 Mr. Cooke sold to Mr. Glines who carried on the business in 1865. Torsey & Downer’s Wagon Shop was about 20×40 feet and located at Morrison and Edwin streets. It was owned by H. K. White. Lyon & Turner Livery Stable was located off College avenue. George Meunch’s brewery was located at Lawrence and Walnut streets in a building 25×50 feet.

The Odd Fellows Hall was dedicated by a festival in February, 1865. Many prominent members of the order were present, among them being D. D. G. M. Budlong, who delivered an interesting address on Odd Fellowship. In the evening the hall was filled with members of the fraternity and their wives and the dedication ceremonies were carried out. Supper was served in conclusion by the ladies of Rebekah Society. A choir of young ladies and gentlemen of the city furnished music. A delegation of Odd Fellows from New London attended this dedication. The Sons of Hermon lodge was organized in February, 1864, by A. Alexander, who became its first president. Thev met in Warner’s hall and later in Odd Fellows’ hall. In 1865 the lodge numbered twenty-eight members.

Konemic lodge, Number 47, Odd Fellows was instituted in July, 1850, in a dwelling house on Edwards street afterwards occupied by Mr. White. T. J. Bailey was the first Noble Grand. A little later it was removed across the ravine to the Chute. Still later it was moved back. After three moves it finally settled down in the second story of the building which stood where Allen & Jackson’s old drug store stood. In 1852 after the lodge had become quite strong the building was destroyed by fire, the Odd Fellows losing everything. They secured aid from outside and soon began the task of rebuilding. The lodge was for a time heavily in debt, but by persistent and steady degrees the debt was paid in three years. For several years the lodge met in the second story of a building afterwards used as a clothing store on Oneida street. Later it occupied Warner’s hall on College avenue, and there remained until it built and occupied its own hall in the fall of 1864. Owing to the heavy drain made upon its membership by the war, it numbered in 1865 only 50 members. At that date it was the second lodge in the city in point of wealth. Waverly lodge, Number 51, Free and Accepted Masons, held its first meeting in Appleton April 25, 1854, in Adkin’s hall. It was first located opposite the hall built at a later date and known by the same name. The lodge was formally organized July 17, 1854, with about ten members of which James W. Murray was first Worshipful Master. By 1865 the membership numbered 73. Anson Ballard was then Worshipful Master. The hall in which they met was at College avenue and Oneida street upstairs.

On June 9, 1858, the Good Templars formed an organization in Cronkite hall with nine charter members. There its meetings were held about one year. Subsequently they removed to Warner’s hall where they continued to meet until October 1864, after which time they met in Odd Fellow’s hall. At that date the lodge numbered about 180 members, but owing to the enlistment, removals, etc., it only numbered about 100 in 1865. John F. Johnston was first Worthy Chief. In 1865 H. D. Ryan held that position.

The Sons of Temperance lodge was chartered in 1851 and was the second oldest organization in the city. It commenced with 12 charter members and met in Ross’ hall at Grand Chute. O. W. Clark was first Worthy Patriarch. The society occupied many habitations, but was prosperous more or less. In its most prosperous days it numbered 75 members, but the war and other circumstances cut it down until in 1864 they surrendered their charter after an existence of fourteen years and ceased their meetings.

Charles Pfennig was treasurer of the funds raised for the establishment of a weekly democratic paper in the Holland language. So many citizens of this county came from Holland that it was deemed advisable to issue such a paper. The Crescent of September 3, 1864, said that never before had the water in the river at Appleton been at so low a stage, yet it was noticed that little or no difference was made in the running of the mills and factories, showing it was thought that the water power was independent of drouth or flood. It was determined by the citizens of the Second ward to build several reservoirs to provide water in case of fire, but this step was finally postponed. It was stated in September 1864 that Appleton would soon have a new foundry, a flouring mill, a hub and spoke factory. All such were welcome.

At the September session of the city council of Appleton, 1864, the following proceedings were had: Several material changes in sewers and in streets were ordered made. Some half dozen new sidewalks were ordered constructed; many bills were allowed and salaries paid. A considerable amount was appropriated for the care of the poor. The sum of $200 was ordered paid to persons who should or had furnished substitutes for the United States service.

Workmen digging in the Second ward, Appleton, in October, 1864, found twenty-four feet below the surface a tamarack stick about two feet long, with portions of the bark still remaining intact, in the toughest clay. It was asked, how came it there? This year Wilson & Barron began the construction of a new foundry in the Third ward.

In November Edward West raised the embankment of his park and let in the water in order to make a skating pond. He had tried the same performance the winter before but had not succeeded. This year he tried to avoid the obstacles he encountered before. Season or single tickets were offered for sale. Appleton now had two tanneries in operation on the water power. One of them manufactured over $90,000 worth of leather during 1864.

In November 1864 the Good Templars of Appleton held a grand Thanksgiving festival, tableau and sociable in Odd Fellows’ hall to secure funds to purchase a melodeon for their lodge. The admission was 50c to all parts of the house, including the ball room. This was attended by a large audience. They had their supper in the lodge room, and it was one of the best ever offered to the public in Appleton. The dance at the close was well patronized. The lodge room was handsomely decorated and everything was arranged for the enjoyment of those who attended. The net receipts amounted approximately to one hundred dollars.

In December, 1864, several boys captured a large white-headed eagle on the ice below the town. The bird was half frozen and could not fly. It was not captured until after a severe fight. The citizens of Appleton gave a grand festival and oyster supper in Odd Fellows’ Hall and a social hop in Adkins’ Hall for the benefit of the poor and unfortunate. There was an. immense attendance; the tickets were $1 each, or for the supper and dance,$1.50 each. A large sum was realized.

At the session of the council of Appleton in December, 1864, the following proceedings were had: A considerable appropriation was made for the support of the county poor; the sum of $500 was levied in the Second ward for ward purposes; $175 was levied in the Third ward; $125 in the Fourth ward; $2,000 was levied to pay city bonds and coupons; $1,000 was levied for the support of the city poor; $2,000 was levied for general city purposes. It was resolved that the city clerk be ordered to place in the assessment roll for the year 1864, the $10,000 bounty tax voted August 9, 1864; J. F. Fuller was elected city superintendent of schools.

At the session of the city council in January, 1865, the following action was had: A considerable sum was appropriated for the support of the poor. Dr. J. Sutherland was paid $100 on his salary as city physician for six months. Edgarton and Dunning were paid $30 for the rent of the council chamber. ‘Steps to purchase a new cemetery were taken. The tract considered was twenty acres on the northeast quarter, of section 25 –on the bluff just below the ravine in the First ward. Wood sold for $3 per cord; pork 14c per lb.; beef, 8c per lb.; eggs, 38c per dozen; lard 30c per lb.; butter 35c per lb.

At this session of the Appleton council, Dr. J. Sutherland was paid $100 for services as city physician for six months. Edgarton and Dunning were paid $30 for rent of council chamber for the same length of time; G. H. Myers was city attorney. The sum of $100 was appropriated to be paid to defend the injunction suit of Reeder Smith against the city.

The following act of the legislature was approved in February: “No city order issued by the city of Appleton, Outagamie county, shall be received by the city treasurer of said city, in payment of the tax voted January 19, 1865, to provide bounty to volunteers under the last call of the President of the United States, and to fill the present quota of said city. This act shall take effect immediately.” The Appleton City Hotel Company was incorporated in 1865 by the following men: H. L. Blood, C. J. Pettibone, Anson Ballard, P. B. Allen, G. W. Spaulding, G. M. Robinson, George McDonald, Byron Douglas and C. Pfennig.

The Appleton City Gas Light Company was incorporated in 1865 by R. Z. Mason, Byron Douglas, James McGillan, James Gilmore, W. W. Crane, S. J. Roudebosh, James Ryan, Reuben Doud, Samuel Ryan, Jr., M. H. Sessions, M. H. Lyon, G. H. Myers, J. H. Marston and others.

R. Z. Mason mayor elect delivered a lengthy address in the spring of 1865. He pointed out particularly the need of Appleton for better roads leading out in all directions from the city. He showed that the cost of roads was comparatively light compared with the advantages resulting. He insisted that a road should be opened on the east side of the river, and another should be opened to Brown county. A better road leading to the Stockbridge reservation should be built; the road leading to Greenville should be extended and greatly improved. He believed that state money could be used for no better purpose than in constructing such roads. The profits of a single season, he thought, would pay for the construction of every road he proposed. He mentioned that the city had voted $25,000 to build a side track railway to the water power, but that proceedings had been stopped by an injunction which he thought was unwarranted. He called attention to the fact that owing to the great importance of manufacturing enterprises here, the citizens should take interest in the construction of a road which manufacturers must have to reach the main line of the railway. He referred to the importance of a grant by the Legislature known as the Northwestern land grant made by Congress in 1864 for the construction of a railway from Fox river to the northwest end of lake Superior and to give a continuous railway from Milwaukee to the foot of Lake Winnebago and thus to the military road near Bayfield. Had this been carried out, Appleton would undoubtedly have received its benefit. The Oshkosh and Wausau Railway which had already constructed a portion of its road bed between Fox and Wolf rivers, would, he believed, be soon completed and would likewise be of great benefit to Appleton. He also pointed out the importance of a speedy construction of the Waupaca road to Stevens Point, and spoke of the advisability of having a railway built from the Lower Fox river valley to the state capital. In regard to liquor and billiard licenses, he spoke as follows: “The question of licensing billiard saloons and the sale of alcoholic liquors as a beverage will in due time doubtless be presented for your action. The idea has frequently presented itself to my mind that if this traffic were a legitimate business in any way contributing to the welfare of human society it would need no license unless we needed to secure a government tax the effect of which was to give the vender of liquors or a couple of saloons a kind of monopoly, whereas, if this were not so, a business would be thrown open like the buying or selling of wide and universal competition. But if this be not a legitimate business and unsafe to our social welfare, why should we use the discretion reposed in us by the law as to the encouraging of it?” He further stated that reservoirs for fire protection should be built at once and suggested that one should be built between Edwards street and College avenue and one on Market street for about $10 each. He said that some suitable action should be taken over the sudden lamentable death of President Lincoln.

The injunction case was carried to the supreme court which ruled that under the law of 1861 the city could not issue more bonds until the outstanding ones were cancelled. Later an act was passed authorizing the city to exchange, renew or reissue bonds to the amount of $10,500, being the whole amount then in existence, upon condition that the time of payment should be extended to twenty years from the date of reissue, and the section prohibiting any other or further issue of bonds was repealed. In March, 1865, additional legislation was passed to enable the Appleton council to proceed at once and conclude the necessary negotiations for a branch railway and sidetrack.

The Fire Company in March petitioned the common council to procure a good hose for the company and also to build water tanks at different points on College avenue. The ladies of Rebekkah of the Odd Fellows lodge, held an anniversary festival at Konemic lodge room late in March. All the Odd Fellows and their wives were present at the entertainment. W. C. Cooke read an essay on the present condition of the lodge. (A considerable sum was realized for lodge purposes.) The Rebekkah Sewing society was an important organization in the ladies’ lodge.

In the spring of 1865 Appleton was sadly short of dwellings and could not half meet the demand for such buildings. The Crescent said that 100 new dwellings would be occupied within thirty days if they could be built. At this time every house, cabin and shed contained families looking for permanent locations.

In April the Appleton Gas Light Company was incorporated with R. Z. Mason, Byron Douglas, James McGillan, John Gilmore, W. W. Grain, S. J. Roudebush, James Ryan, Reuben Doud, Samuel Ryan, Jr., M. H. Sessions, M. H. Lyon, G. H. Myers, J. H. Marston and others. They were incorporated for the purpose of boring and mining for gas and establishing gas works, etc. The capital stock was fixed at $200,000, at $100 per share. As soon as $10,000 should be paid in the company was authorized to commence business. The Appleton City Dwelling company was incorporated with H. L. Blood, C. J. Pettibone, Anson Bullard, P. J. Allen, G. W. Spaulding, Geo. M. Robinson, George McDonald, Byron Douglas, C. Pfennig and others as incorporators. The capital stock was fixed at $50,000, divided into shares of $25 each. Whenever $10,000 was paid in, the company could organize and commence operation. They were authorized to erect buildings in Appleton.

At the May session of the city council of Appleton, 1865, the committee on bridges was instructed to complete the east end of the ravine bridge on College avenue according to the original plans and to close up the bridge across the ravine on Court and Prospect streets except for foot passengers. It was reported that steps were being taken to organize in Appleton a national bank into which the existing bank of David Smith and Co. was soon to be merged. The capital was to be $60,000, divided into shares of $100 each. Those connected with the management were David Smith, Anson Ballard, R. Z. Mason, S. W. Spaulding, Alfred Galpin and M. M. Davis. Books for the subscription of stock were open in May.

The Crescent noted in May that the growth of Appleton during the past two months was most surprising, and had never been surpassed. There was a constant arrival of strangers looking for new homes and many new business houses sprang into existence. “More buildings have been erected in Appleton the present season and more are now in process of construction than in any other city on the line of the Northwestern railway between Chicago and Green Bay,” said that paper.

In June, 1865, the Supreme Court announced its decision in the Reeder Smith injunction case against the city to the effect that the city could not issue such bonds until the outstanding ones were paid.

In August, 1865, upon the expiration of George M. Robinson’s term of office as postmaster at Appleton, J. J. Jackson was appointed his successor. But Congress not being in session, he held his position without confirmation. In May, 1866, Congress re-appointed Mr. Robinson and his name was sent to the Senate for confirmation. This created much concern for some time among the politicians. The Republicans who were opposed to the policy of President Johnson; opposed the re-election of Mr. Robinson because he was a Johnson man. Notwithstanding that Mr. Jackson served for nearly a year, he was now obliged to give up the position.

The council of Appleton ordered the immediate construction of a public well in the Second ward. During the fall Appleton was a great wheat market. On one day in September over $5,000 was paid for that cereal. The fall was so mild that ripe strawberries were picked in Appleton and Cinnamon roses were in full bloom in the middle of October. In December the Appleton Fire Company received 400 feet of new rubber hose and a number of rubber fire buckets. Slowly the city was improving its fire fighting apparatus.

In January, 1866, there was a general demand at Appleton for a city library. It was believed that such an institution would be the means of preventing many young men from getting into vice of all descriptions. “Good Templars. — This organization is doing a good work in a quiet way in this city. It is the only institution or society which is designed to protect the young men and reform the old from the most dire disease that ever afflicted mankind. A few, and but a few, professed Christian men and women labor zealously in this cause.” –(Crescent, January 27, 1866).

“Saturday last was memorable as the day when a greater number of loaded teams were in town than ever before in the history of Appleton. The timber harvest is unexampled. Verily a timber lot within ten miles of Appleton is more profitable than many wheat harvests.” –(Crescent, February 3, 1866). In the same issue was a call from J. B. White asking for 500,000 feet of lumber. He asked for white oak logs; in addition he advertised for railroad ties in large quantities. In the winter G. F. White & Company put up over four hundred tons of ice by February 10 and expected to increase the amount before the season was over. This was an industry which had been neglected here for a long time and which had never yet been conducted on a large scale and systematically. In 1865 Blish & Crawford erected a large building in Appleton and began the manufacture of crackers. In a short time their business more than doubled.

In 1866 Josiah A. Noonan, D. R. Cameron, Samuel Ryan, Jr., R. V. Shirley and James Ryan were incorporated as the Appleton Paper Company. The capital could not exceed $500,000; object, the manufacture of any and all varieties of paper.

The act of March, 1866, ordered set apart as part of the poor fund of Appleton moneys obtained from certain fines, etc. After April, 1866, the mayor received a salary of $100 per annum and each alderman a salary of $50 per annum. For the support of the poor a tax of not over $1,000 a year was ordered levied; also not exceeding one per cent for ward purposes; for all other purposes except principal and interest on the city bonds. These provisions were not to interfere with taxes otherwise provided for.

In 1866 the Appleton City Railway Company was duly incorporated, the first members being Julius S. Buck, Joseph H. Marston, Byron Douglas, A. L. Smith, Samuel Ryan, Jr., M. H. Lyon, Henry Turner, J. W. Hutchinson and R. Z. Mason. The capital stock was $100,000. The company was authorized to construct and operate a single or double track railway in whole or in part propelled by animals or steam in the city of Appleton and its adjacencies; in fact anywhere within the limits of Outagamie county and under certain conditions outside; the towns of the county could aid in the construction of this road under certain restrictions.

In February Capt. J. W. Spaulding sold his interest in the woolen factory to David Smith, the banker, and J. W. Hutchinson, the latter of whom continued to conduct the business. In the spring Appleton citizens were urged to plant shade trees and in response there was a general and concerted movement in that direction. Hundreds of trees were planted on the streets and along roads, many of which stand to this day. In March and April the primary steps to organize a National Bank in Appleton were taken. It was first known as the First National Bank. In April, 1866, the officers were: Anson Ballard, president; David Smith, cashier; R. Z. Mason, Alfred Galpin and John Johnson, of Milwaukee, directors. These officers held their positions until the annual election in the following January. The capital of the bank was fixed at $50,000. It was believed that the establishment of this bank would be of great assistance to business enterprises at Appleton and vicinity. The following companies were incorporated by the legislature: Appleton City Railroad, Appleton Paper Company and Appleton Insurance Company. Fred Douglas the renowned colored lecturer spoke before the Philomathian Society of Lawrence University and was advertised to lecture again here later in the month. Edward L. Meade began suit against Anson Ballard on a claim for certain real estate in the Second ward.

James Gilmore, mayor-elect, in May, 1866, announced what he believed would benefit the city of Appleton. Among other things he said: “You, gentlemen, as well as myself, may be considered as pioneers of this section of the county because most of you were here before it was organized as the County of Outagamie, considerably before Appleton was organized as a city. What now is College avenue was almost impassable for stumps and trees. Scarcely an acre of ground was fit for cultivation for miles around. Every barrel of flour, every pound of meat, and provisions of all kind were brought from a distance, even as far south as Illinois. All the streets were what you might call wildernesses. Very few men had money to enter the land and some of them had to borrow money at 50 per cent to pay for their forty or eighty acres, as the case might be. They had to make their way for miles into the impenetrable wilderness, scarcely knowing whither they went, only as they blazed trees as near as they could calculate on section lines. And such a thing as a road was unknown. Many a man after locating his wife and children in his new home (the very best of the kind was a log cabin) would leave for the nearest settlement to work a few days to earn provisions and carry them back for miles before he reached his family. This is no fancy sketch, it is based upon facts. One who was a resident sixteen years ago might respond that the half has not been told. Without speaking of the different changes which have taken place from time to time, the present exhibits to our view finely cleared farms, well stocked houses and barns, our college, district schools, churches of different denominations, together with the railroad and tolerably good wagon roads in all direction. Timber, which was a burden only a few years ago, is now a resource which is equal to the wheat crop of the county. From 1851 to 1860, taxes were heavy burdens upon the people. Especially were those who settled in the timber often compelled to see their land sold for taxes, and I have estimated that if all the money in the county had been equally distributed among the settlers they would not have had enough to pay the taxes, but as improvement after improvement was made, and a steady system of taxation established (county and town orders were sold in the market at from 35 cents to 75 cents on the dollar, but were brought up to par or nearly so) we soon began to improve our highway, and also to aid in constructing the Chicago and Northwestern Railroad to our city. Sixty days after the cars reached this city parties contracted to deliver timber, ties, wood, etc. on the track and received their cash as soon as delivered. Many a farmer has told me, of a truth, that he could never have paid his debts, consisting of taxes, and rear and support his family, but for the timber on his land. Hence our farmers have been getting rich and the trade of our city has been constantly and steadily increasing. But gentlemen we scarcely see or appreciate our resources. They have not been touched and remain for future development. I will hazard the statement without fear of contradiction, that Appleton is in a better condition than many cities in this state. We can pay every debt we owe within the next twelve months and not pay as large a tax as we have paid in any one of the last five years.” He stated that the legislature had authorized the laying out of three more roads leading eastwardly and southwardly from Appleton. He said the city needed additional railroad facilities, but could not have them without paying. He spoke particularly of the poor and suggested that a poor-farm should be bought immediately and the necessary buildings erected thereon. As the law permitted the sale of liquor neither he nor the council could prohibit its use where men were determined to sell and drink it. But the sale of such beverages could be regulated. He urged the establishment of a market ground. The street called Market street a few years before was dedicated to that purpose, but the street had not now the capacity for that purpose. The market needed a much larger space where business similar to that of the previous winter could be contracted without confusion. There were several days during the winter of 1865-66 when from three hundred to five hundred teams arrived here loaded with the products of the county, particularly logs.

At the meeting of the city council in May, the following proceedings were had: Benjamin Proctor, poor master, was paid $100 salary instead of $50, the sum previously paid. Several applications for liquor licenses were favorably considered.

Late in June another lodge of Good Templars was organized in Appleton. There were over eighty applicants for charter membership. The Fourth of July, was celebrated at Appleton on a large scale. The principal oration was delivered by Hon. T. H. Hudd, and was published in full by the newspapers. It was a strong, able production but took a distorted view of national politics as was too often the case during the war and just at its close. William B. Carr was appointed postmaster at New London in July. Appleton was made a postoffice money office to take effect August 6. George N. Robinson became postmaster in August to fill the vacancy occasioned by the expiration of the appointment of F. G. Jackson.

The Appleton Stock Growers’ Association met August 1, 1866, and elected the following officers: Harmon Jones, president; G. I. Brewster, vice-president; M. H. Lyon, secretary; Dr. S. L. Fuller, treasurer; the directors were H. Jones, G. I. Brewster, A. Alexander, Henry Turner and A. P. Lewis. It was reported by one of the directors that most of the shares had been sold and that only a few remained to be subscribed.

There was a building mania here during the spring, summer and fall of 1866. Scores of dwellings were erected, but every building was filled as soon as constructed. It was stated that a hundred more dwellings would be occupied at once if built. The growth of the whole county was considered remarkable. In the case of E. L. Meade brother of John F. Meade against Anson Ballard claiming a large share of the Second ward of Appleton, the United States Court at Milwaukee in September, 1866, declined to allow the case to be argued and instructed the jury to find for the defendant, which was accordingly done. This decision was important to Appleton because it removed all shadow from part of the business district.

At a general meeting of the Good Templars of the state at Portage City in September, the report showed an increase of over 8,000 in membership during the past year. About the first of October, G. M. Robinson took possession of the postoffice and removed it to the Smith building near the Congregational church. The pioneers of Appleton assembled late in December in the college chapel and were addressed by Rev. Samuel Fallows. There was a large attendance and many interesting stories concerning the early settlement of this county were told. Prominent settlers responded to many toasts. Among those to make responses were: Samuel Ryan, Jr., John Stephens, Anson Ballard, Dr. A. B. Randall, Dr. M. M. Davis, Prof. J. M. Phinney, Rev. F. B. Doe and others. The old settlers enjoyed an elaborate dinner at the “Hotel de Phinney.” Appleton encampment, No. 16, Odd Fellows, was instituted early in December. The following officers were elected: Samuel Ryan Jr., C. P.; W. C. Cook, H. P.; The Palton, S. W. This encampment began its career under the most flattering promises. The subordinate lodge was in an exceedingly prosperous condition. The erection of buildings and the demand for dwellings were still as great as they had been during the previous summer. There was a constant cry for more dwellings in Appleton.

In the middle of January, 1867, Appleton was never so thronged with teams from the country and from the logging camps owing mainly to the good roads caused by freezing. Oak logs were worth about $10 per thousand; pine and ash the same; butternut ran as high as $12 per thousand; Basswood $8; maple $8. Large quantities of pork was marketed at Appleton. It was noted at this time that more horse teams were to be seen on the streets than ever before. They were slowly but surely taking the place of the ox teams.In January the ice gatherers harvested and put in storage the largest crop of ice ever saved in any one season at Appleton. Thousands of tons of ice were thus stored away. The citizens of Appleton, in January, 1867, considered the question of building a bridge on Prospect street at Appleton street as well as a new draw-bridge across the canal in the Fourth ward. Those were important improvements and it was desired that the citizens should vote upon the question. The bridge question was submitted to the voters and very few votes were polled against it. The canal bridge and the Prospect- Lawrence street bridge were both carried by substantial majorities. The authorities were therefore urged to take immediate steps to construct these bridges, or at least to haul the timber before the frost was out of the ground. It was stated that $3,000 could thus be saved by prompt action.

In 1867 the Legislature incorporated the Appleton Lieder Krauz society of Appleton, the original incorporators being Frederick Peterson, August Nitschke, John H. Otto, Henry Roden, Christian Fuhrberg,Heinrich Harbeck, Julius Lohlegal,John Jennesjahn, Louis Schintz, John Koffend, Frederick Rockstroh, Joseph Koffend, August Kaestle, Christian Roemer, Charles Muench, George Kessler, Fritz Rohrbach, Charles Leimer, Wilhelm Schmidt, John Peterson, John Berg, Wilhelm Scheck, Louis Fisher, Rudolph Schmidt, Anton Koffend, Sebastian Ostertog, John Roemer, Mathias Werner, Frederick Dannenfelser, William Peterson, Wilhelm Sielof, Edward Becker and others. The object of the society was to give active support in the cultivation of vocal and instrumental music and to afford encouragement and aid to literary, scientific and social improvement and the advancement of art.

In 1867 the Legislature authorized the Appleton council to cause a survey, plat and map to be made of the land lying south of College avenue and east of the Wolf river plank road in the third ward; also of the tract in the Second ward lying east of Elm street and of a line drawn due north of the courthouse center to a point directly west of the center of Lawrence street to River street.

At a meeting of the firemen held in Firemen hall in April, the following officers were chosen: .George Kreiss, chief engineer; B. Douglas, first assistant; T. McGraft, second assistant; A. L. Smith, third assistant. Fire wardens, James Smith in the First ward; C. J. Greiger in the Second ward; Z. Patton in the third ward; Webb Ketchum in the Fourth ward. In the spring the lack of vacant houses in Appleton was as great as ever. People had ceased to inquire for houses. They now were content to get a room or a few rooms or a shanty for temporary use and still the rush continued. Several of the towns received many accessions. New buildings went up in every direction in Appleton and the small villages grew just as rapidly in proportion. Prices began to come up, not only of houses and lots, but of acreage. At this time also people planted many trees in door yards, vacant lots, along the streets and around the borders of farms. Evergreens began to make their appearance in yards, cemeteries and parks. It was stated late in April 1867 that over 400 Hollanders were on their way to this country and would come to Green Bay and no doubt many of themn would find homes in Outagamie county. Kaukauna, Buchanan and Freedom, it was stated, would receive the bulk of these immigrants. There were urgent calls here for the establishment of a brick manufacturing plant. It was sadly needed; as it was, the builders were compelled to import brick from other localities and could not get enough. The Crescent was chosen the official organ of the city. The report of the city treasurer showed total receipts $28,227 less $2,460 on hand at the beginning of the year. The expenses were the same except $3,582 on hand at the end of the year.

The Supreme court, in March, 1867, decided the following points in regard to the license question: First –The fact that spirituous liquors had been sold for medicinal purposes was no defense to an indictment for selling them without a license. Second –Under general police power the legislature might prohibit entirely the sale of spirituous liquor within the state. Third –The court explained .the point that the excise law vested in the town board discretionary power to refuse absolutely to license any sale of intoxicating liquors. Fourth –But even if this were not so, still the refusal of a town board to license any sale of such liquors was no defense to an indictment for the unlicensed sale.

Robert R. Bateman, mayor elect of Appleton, delivered his inaugural address in April. He stated that at a special election the people had voted $2,000 for two bridges, a draw-bridge over the canal and the Prospect street bridge. Both were well advanced toward completion and should be promptly finished. He referred to the fact that numerous roads were being built throughout the county and were authorized by special enactment of the legislature. These roads he thought should be and no doubt would be finished at an early date. He regretted that the votes of the county had decided against the road bill passed by the legislature in March, which meant that “Outagamie county must continue to live in mud, move in mud and have its being in mud for several years longer.” There were some complaints in regard to streets and sidewalks, but these were fast being removed by the active work on city improvements. He urged the city to take additional action concerning the extinguishment of fires by providing reservoirs and wells for a supply of water. He noted that there was a great diversity of opinion concerning licensing the sale of liquors. He said that public opinion was divided in regard to the morality of the business, and that the board no doubt had discretionary power to grant or not to grant licenses. The board thus must determine whether they should or should not. He stated that owing to the presence here of Lawrence university and to the presence of several hundred young men and women, Appleton should set an example of morality and not provide the means by which any of them should be led astray. The fact that many foreigners who were in the habit of drinking had come here to reside was no reason why license should be granted, if for other good reasons it should not be. A tax necessary to raise means to build the draw-bridge was ordered levied; also the sum of $3,000 to be used in building the bridge across the ravine from Prospect street to Lawrence street. Some changes were made in the boundaries of the school districts. The accounts of William Johnston, city treasurer, of receipts and expenditures of the previous year were received, audited and approved.

At the May term of the common council the following proceedings were had: Numerous petitions for sidewalks were received and referred to a committee. Seven petitions for saloon licenses were received and likewise referred to a committee. Other petitions for such were refused. The fire department had held an election and presented the list of firemen for confirmation. The salary of the poor-master was fixed at $125 per year. W. S. Warner resigned at city attorney. The pay was insufficient. A petition was presented at this meeting to establish the fire limits in Appleton, or rather to extend the fire limits to certain additional streets. It was referred to a committee. The fire company were authorized to rent the upper part of the engine house for a juvenile school during the session when stoves were not needed to warm the building. At the June session of the council the following proceedings were had: A petition from the citizens to repair the bridge across Fox river in the First and Fourth wards was presented and accepted. This petition was signed by Wilbur Allen and 58 others. Steps to purchase block 9 in the Second ward to be used for an ornamental park and play ground, city hall, fire engine house and other city buildings were taken at the June session of the council. Other localities were considered at this date. The committee on finance was instructed to investigate and report on this question. The city pound was ordered partitioned. The city charter provided that all contracts let by the city exceeding $50 in value should be offered to the lowest bidder. Therefore the previous action of the council to appropriate $200 to repair the lower bridge was recinded, because it was a violation of this law. Steps to build a bridge across Fox river at the foot of College avenue and directly across to the canal locks on a line with the state road from Appleton to Maple Grove were taken. There was opposition to the building of this bridge, owing to the fact that already the city had an indebtedness of an unusually large amount to pay for improvements and the additional expense would make too heavy a burden upon the tax payers.

In July, Col. Henry Pomeroy retired from the management of the Appleton Post and was succeeded by Major C. W. Baker, who had for a long time been in charge of its business and mechanical department. Two suits were instituted at Appleton against persons selling liquor without a license. The common council thus far had rejected all applications for licenses. A large number of ladies greatly interested in the temperance movement were present at these trials.

At the session of the common council in July the following proceedings were had: A strong fight was conducted against the granting of licenses and the sale of liquor, but finally several were favored and licenses allowed. Several were refused because they could not show the proper character and qualifications. The contest in the council was so sharp and bitter that one alderman retired and left the chamber in anger and disgust. The licenses granted were done so on a straight vote of four in favor and three against.S. L. Phinney presented a petition of about 400 ladies asking that license be refused and on motion to receive the same the vote stood as follows: Five in favor and three against. This petition was published in the newspapers. At this meeting also Alderman Ballard presented the petition of Rev. Mr. Himebaugh and 100 others against granting liquor license. The petition was received and placed on record; it was signed by men only. After these petitions had been introduced the applications for license were reconsidered and carried by the same vote — 4 to 3. This was one of the most determined fights against liquor licenses yet seen in Appleton. The influence of so many ladies alone should have been sufficient, it was argued, to win the day. But the liquor dealers were too strong and no doubt used plenty of money.

An act of the legislature provided for the opening of a state road to Maple Grove in Manitowoc county and accordingly the council in August, 1867, determined to build a good and substantial bridge across Fox river and a draw-bridge across the canal on the line of the road. The bridge committee was instructed to take charge of this matter. The committee appointed at a previous meeting to investigate the question of purchasing a square to be used as a park, etc., reported that block 9 in the Second ward was well adapted for this use and recommended that it should be purchased. The price they learned necessary to pay to secure it was $8,000, which was cheaper than any other tract in that part of the city that would answer the same purpose. The fire department at this time petitioned for better equipment and suggested the purchase of a new engine. It was thought, however, that the present engine would answer the purpose for some time yet to come. At the council meeting in August, J. J. Watson & Company asked for a license to sell ardent spirits for sacramental, and medicinal purposes. A vote taken on the question was in favor of the granting of a license; no vote was cast against it.

In the early fall the streets, sidewalks and crosswalks in Appleton were never in better condition and the common council of Appleton were fairly besieged with petitions for new walks, many of which were granted. Among the streets improved at this time were Morrison and Oneida.

For the first time, in the summer of 1867, the young men of Appleton organized a base ball club and at once began practicing on the college grounds. Later they played on the grounds of A. L. Smith back of the Methodist church. Sprained ankles, bruised shins, skinned hands, broken fingers and run-over bodies were reported numerously. The name of the club was at first Excelsior. The list of officers was as follows: A. L. Smith, president; W. L. Hayes, first vice-president; W. Lanphear, second vice-president; Samuel Boyd, treasurer; Samuel Fernandez, secretary; Geo. W. White, Allen Turner, and Humphrey Pierce, executive committee. The club played every Tuesday and Thursday evenings and Saturday afternoons.

Early in August another base ball club was organized in Appleton and was called the 0. K.’s. They comprised boys ranging from 14 to 18 years of age. They were reported to be a noisy crowd. The other base ball club which first used the name Excelsior later became known as the Badgers.

In August the representatives of base ball clubs at Green Bay and Oshkosh came to Appleton to investigate the Badgers and learn whether they were qualified to play clubs existing in those cities. While here the Badgers played a game in which the visiting clubs participated. The result was that the visitors concluded to play a match game at Appleton on August 29, at 10 o’clock in the morning.

The common council in 1867 decided among themselves that the most judicious method of controlling the liquor traffic was by licensing the sale and putting the dealers under heavy bonds not to violate ordinances or laws.

The base ball clubs of Green Bay and Oshkosh met at Appleton later in August to play a deciding game between clubs of these cities, two having been previously played. The day was beautiful and a large attendance of Appleton people were present. A brass band furnished excellent music. The Badgers spared no pains to make everything pleasant for the two visiting clubs. They were escorted to the Waverly house and well provided for. The Stars of Green Bay were thus pitted against the Everetts of Oshkosh. W. A. Hayes of the Badgers served as umpire and H. E. Whitney of the Stars as scorer. The score was as follows: Stars, 52, Everetts, 73. One man of the Stars made four home runs. The Stars made a total of 14 home runs and the Everetts 9. The game lasted three and one-half hours. A handsome goblet was provided by the Badgers and presented to the winning team, also they were presented with a handsome bat. At the close the defeated Stars gave three cheers for the Everetts which compliment was returned by the latter with a tiger. All then gave three cheers for the Badgers and adjourned at 2:30 p. m. for dinner. Late in the afternoon of the same day the Badgers and the Fox Rivers of Neenah played a friendly little game. The Fox Rivers made 37 runs and the Badgers 34. This was a closely contested game, neither club showing much superiority over the other. They recorded in those days home runs, passed balls and fly catches. The second great game of base ball between the Badgers and Fox Rivers occurred at Appleton in September, 1867. The Fox Rivers made 32 runs and the Badgers 59. On fly catches the Badgers had 9 and the Fox rivers 7. Two home runs were made by the Badgers. The umpire was A. W. Kimball, a member of the Stars of Green Bay.

In a second game played between the Badgers and Fox Rivers the former came out ahead, winning by 7 scores.

By the first of September, 1867, the game season was at its height and the air was full of prairie chickens, quails, geese, ducks, etc.

On the last Saturday in September there was paid out at Appleton in cash for wheat in wagons the sum of $14,000. Men who witnessed this condition of things remembered that but a few years before all the flour they used was brought here in a boat. On the following Monday also there was an unbroken line of teams to the flouring mill from 8 o’clock in the morning until 6 o’clock at night. During the summer and fall the Appleton city council did an enormous amount of work in improving existing streets, planning and establishing new streets, laying sidewalks, building bridges, etc. The Appleton Cornet Band was apparently a fixed institution. A beautiful flag was presented to it by the ladies of the city; the presentation speech being made by T. R. Hudd and thanks being returned by Mr. Foster of the band. These proceedings took place at the Waverly House. The fund to purchase the flag was raised by Mary O’Keefe and Sophie Nicoulin. The bank building, newly constructed, contained a hall which became known as Bank Hall. Here many proceedings were held.

In October, Julius S. Buck, clerk of the city council of Appleton, resigned the position he had occupied so long. His letter of resignation was quite lengthy and contained some important history. He had accepted the office of city clerk in the spring of 1859 and had been re-elected year after year ever since. In taking the office he found the financial matters of the city in chaos. There was no clerk’s report on file or to be had. The paper of the city was hawked on the streets at 45 cents on the dollar and was a drug at that. From a copy of the Crescent he learned something of the finances of the city and made that his starting point, to bring order out of confusion. In quitting the office he made some suggestions. He observed that the salary of the city officials should not be fixed haphazard like gambling operations. He cautioned the people to judiciously expend money raised for public improvements. He ended by thanking the council for their uniform courtesy. The council immediately passed resolutions complimenting him for his long and faithful services.

The Badgers were composed of the following players: Shaylor, shortstop; Turner, first base; Pierce, pitcher; Johnson, catcher; E. Davis, right fielder; White, second base; Briggs, center fielder; A. Davis, left fielder; Lanphear, third base. They batted in the above order. In October the Badgers played the Aegis of Menasha and badly defeated them. The former scored 122 runs and the latter only 26. The Badgers made 13 home runs. A. L. Smith, president of the Badger club, was umpire.

The council levied a tax of $5,000 for the purpose of constructing these bridges. The assessable property of the city, real and personal, in November, 1867, was $729,147. A special bridge tax of $3,000 was ordered levied in November. Steps were taken in the council, to rescind the resolution asked for in the previous August in reference to the construction of the bridge across Fox River on the line of the state road from Appleton to Maple Grove. The result was 4 in favor and 2 against it; whereupon the resolution was declared recinded.

W. L. Newbury offered the right of way free to the Maple Grove state road from the canal bank to the Buchanan road, asking only $75 which he would have to expend to arrange the transfer. This offer was accepted by the city council. Further action was taken on the Maple Grove bridge. The resolution was finally passed, requiring the construction of such a bridge across the river and the draw-bridge across the canal — six voting in favor of this step and none against it.

At the session of the council of Appleton in December, 1867, the street commissioner was ordered to procure plans and specifications for a tower on the engine house and to advertise for proposals for constructing the same; the cost not to exceed $150. David Kimball and Reeder Smith were paid $100 for land used to make an enlargement of Pearl street in the Second ward. The financial committee was instructed to secure a permanent location for the engine house. At this date plans for the two bridges over the river and over the canal on the Appleton and Maple Grove State Road were submitted and approved. The street commissioner was directed to advertise for sealed proposals to construct such bridges.

In January, 1868, a destructive fire occurred at the Appleton water works, by which the Hub & Spoke Factory was entirely destroyed, entailing a loss of about $10,000. The factory was owned by Wilbor & Allen.

At the January session of the Appleton council the following proceedings were had: Catlin & Glennin were paid $800 for excavating a large quantity of earth for the Prospect street bridge. The city attorney reported against the legality of an order for $200 on the bounty fund in favor of Anson B. Randall. This claim was finally laid on the table. John P. Parrish was awarded the contract to build the bridge across Fox river and the draw-bridge across the canal on the Appleton and Maple Grove state road. The former was to cost $3,795 and the latter $1,500. The street commissioner was instructed to enter into contract with J. P. Parrish for the construction of those bridges. The time for the payment of taxes for 1867 was extended twenty-five days. The resolution to appropriate $200 local bounty for S. P. Ming, who enlisted from Appleton in 1862 and who had not received any bounty whatever, was laid on the table. About the middle of February the mercury at Appleton stood at 30 degrees below zero and the following day 26 degrees below zero.

Among the business houses of Appleton were the following: Genessee Flouring Mills, F. C. Pfennig, proprietors; the Appleton Mills, S. R. Wiley, proprietor; the Outagamie Mills, M. R. Barteau, proprietor; the Lawrence Mills, C. Morey & Co., proprietors; the Appleton sawmills, W. & J. Whorton, proprietors; the First Ward Sawmills, Harris & Heth, proprietors; Rigg’s sawmill, Charles P. Riggs, proprietor; the Iron Foundry and Machine Shop, Ketchum, Knox & Morgan; the Outagamie Steam Foundry, Wilson & Co., proprietors; the Appleton Hub Spoke & Wagon Manufactory, Mason & Marston, proprietors; the Appleton Hub & Spoke Co., Barteau & St. Louis, proprietors; the Spoke & Hub Factory of Wilbur & Allen; the Hub & Spoke Factory of Spaulding & Dane; the Appleton Paper Mills, G. M. Richmond, proprietor; the Appleton Woolen Factory, Hutchinson & Smith, proprietors; the Badger Agricultural Implement Works, C. G. Adkins, proprietor; the Appleton Stave Factory, George 0. Brewster, proprietor; the Furniture Factory, Otto, Wettengel & Roden, proprietors; the Furniture Factory of J. F. Adkinson & Co.; the Appleton Tannery, Joshua Hayes, proprietor; and the tannery of Knapp & Co. There were at this time 19 general stores; 16 groceries; 9 shoe stores including shops; 3 hardware stores; 3 drug stores; 3 furniture stores; 4 millinery; establishments; 8 blacksmith shops; 4 wagon and carriage factories; 2 cigar factories; 1 glove and mitten factory; 7 public houses, and many minor tradesmen, such as carpenters, masons, bakers, barbers, etc. Among the business houses were: Clark & Forbes, general dealers; C. J. Pettibone, general store; C. G. Adkins, general store; A. Ruhlander, general store; D. Hammel & Co., general store. Among the grocers were: Ettinger & Bro., A. Alexander, Charles A. Rose, C. Phelps & Co., D. C. Babcock & Bro., Terrice & Harriman, Thompson & Bailey, Theo. W. Briggs, C. L. Fay & Co.; clothing, H. A. Foster; drugs, J. J. Watson & Co., successors to Allen & Jackson; Babcock & Bro., hardware; A. Galpin, hardware and stoves; Turner & Fernandez, books and stationery.

At the meeting of the council in February, the following proceedings were had: Samuel Ryan, Jr., was allowed $200 bounty; after this motion carried, a substitute was adopted postponing the payment of bounties until the matter could be investigated by a special committee. The new county superintendent, D. J. Brothers, visited all portions of the county during the winter of 1867-8, examining the conduct and management of all the district schools. As a whole he reported them in satisfactory condition, but he recommended a number of important improvements. A. H. Cronkhite, who years before had been in the banking business in Appleton and had failed, took advantage of the bankruptcy law and expected to be discharged. But W. A. Warner of Appleton commenced additional proceedings against him on an old claim. Among the prominent men who owned property in or near Appleton were the following: Ex-Governor Seymour of New York; Frank B. Ogden of Chicago; Erastus Corning of Albany, New York; Ex-Collector Hiram Barney of New York City; and G. L. Dunlap of Chicago. So many logs came to Appleton by February, 1868, that the city suffered from a surfeit of them. Thousands were piled here ready for shipment or ready to be manufactured into lumber as’ soon as it could be done by the local mills. In the spring of 1868 the Appleton Cornet Band purchased instruments valued at several hundred dollars, took lessons, secured uniforms, and perfected themselves generally for a first class musical program.

In March Reid and Grumley, students of the University, who had conducted the Appleton Post, assumed entire control of that sheet. Mr. Reid had previous experience in the newspaper world.

At the March session of the city council the following proceedings were had, to-wit: The petitions for bounties were laid over to another meeting, new plans were prepared for the drawbridge across the canal and bids to correspond were called for. John P. Parrish bid $2,200, which was the lowest. Further investigation was ordered before awarding the contract.

In the spring of 1868 travel between Appleton, New London and Stephens Point was very great. The stages arrived and departed loaded with travelers. The stages from Appleton to New London ran by way of Youngs’ Corners and there connected with stages from Oshkosh. Apparently there was an enormous amount of travel through Appleton and many remained in this locality permanently. It was noted in March that passengers were then crossing the new bridge to Prospect street and that the bridge itself was nearly completed. “To appreciate the beauties of this bridge, one has but to
foot it to or from Third ward by way of the mud road down hill to the bridge, wallowing deep in the swamp hole. It is a big thing any way you take it.” The act of March 2, 1868, made the elective officers of Appleton as follows: Mayor, treasurer, city clerk, assessor, city attorney, marshal and street commissioner from the city at large and two aldermen and one justice for each ward; other officers such as city surveyor were appointed.

At the May session of the Appleton council the following proceedings were had: Bids for building the draw-bridge over the canal on the line of the Appleton and Maple Grove state road were received. That of Leonard Williams $1,800 being the lowest, he was
given the contract. The report of the city treasurer for the preceding year was received and filed. At this date the grading of Appleton and Prospect streets was nearly completed. Aldermen Heath, Lyon, Lite and Bauter and the mayor were appointed a committee to negotiate for the purchase of a tract of land not exceeding 120
acres and in close proximity to the city of Appleton to be devoted to the establishment of a poorhouse and farm, provided it could be paid for in city bonds drawing not more than 7 per cent and payable wthin fifteen years. The committee was directed to investigate and report to the council without delay, and were instructed to prepare a plan and estimate for a poorhouse not to cost over $1,000. The projection of many streets was considered at this time. Steps to build a stone culvert in the great ravine under College avenue bridge were taken. The report of the city treasurer for the fiscal
year of 1867-8 showed that $47,863 was received, less $3,588 on hand
at the beginning of the year. The expenses were $43,342, and the
balance on hand, $4,520.

By May 20, there had been erected thus far that year in Appleton over 100 frame dwelling houses either whole or in part. The city was growing rapidly, particularly the Fourth ward. There was great demand for building material. At this time the Canal company was endeavoring to buy a part of Grand Chute island. The
river steamers were very active and doing a large business.

There was an unusual occurrence in Appleton in June, 1868. A “grand opening” of a saloon with a large crowd in attendance was held. Trouble arose and in the fight which occurred one man had an arm broken and several others carried away severe scars on
their heads and bodies. After the row was over all dropped complaints and hence the trouble did not get into the courts. The new Appleton Cornet Band was secured by Lawrence University to furnish music during the whole of the commencement exercises. The boys had already become proficient, and their music was fully appreciated and in great demand.

The finest game of ball the citizens of Appleton had ever witnessed up to that date occured here in June, 1868, between the Badgers of Appleton and the Stars of Green Bay. The first game of the series was played here during commencement exercises in order to secure a large attendance. The umpire was Mr. Bailey of the
Everetts of Oshkosh. The game was closely contested amid great excitement, especially in the last inning, neither club attaining sufficient advantage to feel confident of ultimate success. It finally resulted in a victory for the Badgers. The time of the game was three
hours. The Badgers made 31 scores and the Stars 24. During the last three innings the Badgers made 15 to 8 by the Stars. The Badgers made two double plays. The Stars caught 18 flies and the Badgers 19. The Badger players were: Turner, second base;
E. Davis, pitcher; Johnson, catcher; Briggs, right fielder; Coles, first base; A. Davis, left fielder; Proctor, short stop; White, center fielder; and Lanphear, third base.

At the August session of the council a committee reported having built a fire tower to be used in hanging up the hose with all necessary accompaniments, etc., all of which cost $140. It was decided at this time to take steps to secure a new cemetery. A committee was appointed to investigate different sites and to report at a subsequent meeting. They were instructed to secure at least forty acres not far from Appleton to be paid for with city bonds drawing 7 per cent interest within fifteen years. Dr. Steele of the University
reported the following statistics concerning that institution: Total of unproductive property, $134,745; productive property, $38, 227.79; grand total, $172,872.79. Of the unproductive property, the university buildings were estimated at $75,000; the college
grounds at $30,000; the library at $15,000; the cabinet at $5,000.

The big river bridge at Appleton on the Appleton and Maple Grove state road was nearly completed by the last of August, 1868. The drawbridge was also nearly finished and soon teams would be able to cross. At this time also the big bridge along Prospect street was being finished and leveled.

The Fourth of July, 1868, was celebrated at Appleton. At sunrise the cannon was fired and bells were rung. The day was fine and warm and by 10 o’clock the sidewalks were crowded with spectators. Soon afterwards the procession formed and headed by
the Appleton Cornet Band and carriages containing little girls representing
the various states and followed by the citizens and soldiers moved out to the fair grounds where the services of the day were held. The oration was delivered by Ex-Governor Lewis and was an eloquent speech. Races were held and other proceedings enjoyed and the day was pleasantly spent. At night fire works and dancing
closed the events.

At the session of the common council in July, Reeder Smith presented a claim for damages for eighteen sheep killed and maimed by dogs early in the same month. He brought evidence to show that his claim was well founded. Witnesses valued the lambs at $1.50 and the sheep at $3 per head. After the evidence was all in the board
ordered $41.06 paid to Mr. Smith out of the dog fund. Several licenses for liquor were applied for and granted. Owing to a recent fire in which there was a heavy loss without insurance and upon petitions of a number of citizens the city council took steps to build
three reservoirs at the junctions of Appleton, Morrison and Durkee streets with College avenue, to be of like capacity as the one then at the corner of Oneida street and College avenue. The chief engineer of the fire department was authorized to procure hooks, ladders, ropes, etc., used by firemen. Also a fire bell, the price of the latter not to exceed $150; also 400 feet of fire hose of the best material.

In the third game of baseball played at Green Bay between the Badgers and the Stars, the latter won by 56 to 24; only seven innings were played and the time was about four hours. The middle week in August, 1868, was called baseball week in Appleton. The
Capital City club of Madison was here and played the Badgers. The Capital City club scored 98 runs and the Badgers 13; next day the Capital City club played the Stars of Green Bay with the result of 33 for the Capital City club and 17 for the Stars. On Friday the Green Bay Stars played the Badgers: result, –72 for the Stars and 34 for
the Badger. The Crescent said, “It is now presumed that the Badgers will bid adieu to baseballdom and will return to the peaceful pursuits of private life.”

In September at the session of the council extensive work in street building and improvements was undertaken, numerous committees were appointed and the council prepared to spend a large amount of money during the next year. All the roads leading to Appleton were investigated and ordered improved. The grading of nearly all the streets was re-established at this time. The Lawrence Engine Company secured a large fire bell, weighing over 400 pounds, which was procured at Troy, New York, and was designed to announce the occurrence of fires. A new hotel was opened in Appleton
and was called the Levake Hotel. It was owned by Henry L. Blood and was duly opened by a house warming. In September the Appleton Post changed hands, passing to Buchanan Brothers formerly of Canada. Major Baker retired and removed to Janesville the same fall.

This year the Odd Fellows of Appleton laid the foundation for a library which they designed to make one of the largest and best in the state. They solicited donations of books and advertised quite extensively in order to increase the number of volumes rapidly. They promised later to open a free reading-room.

Early in September, 1868, J. W. Woodward, who had resided in Appleton for sixteen years, died after a short illness at the advanced age of 75 years. He was a stirring business man and one of the substantial citizens of the city. It was rumored in October,
that a new bank was soon to be started in Appleton. Business had grown so great that capitalists already saw that one more bank might be advantageously conducted.

At the November session of the council the contract for grubbing, grading and filling the sluices and building the bridges on the Appleton and Maple Grove state road was let to W. B. May, who bid the smallest amount ($2,800) for the work. Robert R. Batemar
presented the plat of his second addition to Appleton in the First ward.

Late in November a large lynx was killed within a few miles of Appleton by a farmer, under circumstances not detailed by the newspapers. In November Mr. McGinnis of Greenville brought a horse here which he sold to Mr. Horton. Before he left Appleton,
late in the evening after dark, he was waylaid east of the railroad tracks, knocked down and robbed of all he had, which amounted to about $500. He was unable to describe the robber. In November Prof. E. F. Walker, a gentleman of extensive experience in his line, established a dance academy at Appleton in the bank building. He gave instruction to young ladies, young gentlemen and children. He soon had large and flourishing classes.

It was believed in December that Appleton needed many changes and additions to its constitution and charter. Accordingly a committee of the city council was appointed to act in combination with leading citizens to prepare such amendments as, it was believed,
would be beneficial to the city. The citizens generally were invited to submit written suggestions to the committee. Exactly twenty years before December, 1868, all the mail received at Appleton did not fill more than a cigar box. In 1868 it overloaded in bulk a railroad car. Then the arrival of mail once in several days, and even though the arrival was delayed several days, was welcomed with pleasure. In 1868 the people grumbled if they were delayed five minutes. Metropolitan Hall in Bertschy block was duly opened as a lodge room and dedicated in December. At this date it was probably
the largest auditorium in the city.

A committee appointed to prepare amendments to the city charter reported that they had completed such a list to be presented to the assemblymen with a request that it be passed at any early date. Full and final provision for licensing saloons, groceries, taverns, and eating houses, wherein spirituous liquors were sold, were passed by the council at this time. The important features of the proposed amendments to the city charter in 1869 were the entire reformation of the street commissidner system, making the clerk’s office a record of all the city business, all contracts, all actions, etc., before they should reach the common council. All certificates for street work were to emanate from the clerk. He was to combine all the duties ordinarily performed by a comptroller. It was believed these provisions would place a check upon several illegal and dishonest practices. In January, 1869, the council of Appleton passed an ordinance providing for the establishment of a permanent police department and force in the city. The force was to consist of a chief and such policemen as thereafter should be needed. An ordinance passed at that time fixed the fire limits of the city.

“Liederkranz,” a German society, which had been organized in Appleton a full year before, gave in February, 1869, a grand masked ball in Metropolitan Hall, on which occasion there was a large attendance. The dancers were required to mask and many
ridiculous costumes appeared, particularly were scenes of the Fatherland represented. Another German organization composed mostly of young men was also in existence and were known as the Appleton Turn Verein Society. They also held a public entertainment at this time. They marched through the streets in a procession in which was a Turner band drawn by six yoke of oxen followed by another wagon drawn by oxen and loaded with jolliers. The king was shown in all his glory, seated on his throne, which was formed of a large hogshead. Altogether these two celebrations greatly
tickled the people of Appleton.

Late in February a number of young ladies and gentlemen of Appleton undertook to render in tableaux the old English melodrama in two acts entitled “The Mistletoe Bough.” The entertainment was rendered in Metropolitan Hall. A full list of the characters was published. Lord Lovell was represented by F. A. Johnson and Lady Agnes by Miss T. A. Patton. Tickets were placed at the low price of 25 cents each.

In February there was an unusually brilliant display of the Aurora Borealis at Appleton. This phenomenon was quite a common occurrence in this vicinity. Often during fall and winter months the display in the northern skies was magnificent, the beautiful colors extending upward to the zenith, and shooting back and forth with great rapidity.

The council took steps to appoint several policemen. The rooms occupied by the council were ordered leased for another year. It was known late in February that the amendments which had been proposed to the charter of Appleton would no doubt pass the legislature. The old city officers were to be elected by popular vote. The council was given authority by these amendments to appoint its own clerk. The prospects of securing the side-track in February were bright. The railroad officials agreed to co-operate with the city for the construction of that improvement.

Early in March it was announced that the senate committee had reported adversely upon the proposed amendments to the Appleton Charter; that 140 persons here had remonstrated against its passage. It was further announced that this step killed the bill completely.

In 1869 the council, under the advice of W. S. Warner, city attorney, issued an order for the removal of obstructions from Johnson street and for its grubbing and grading. It was stated that this street was dedicated to the city by Amos A. Lawrence in 1849 or 1850. Several lawsuits against the city were commenced, owing to such action to improve that street. Private citizens claimed to own sections of it and brought suit accordingly to restrain the city from continuing its improvement. The first case was before a justice court and the city won, and the case was affirmed in the circuit court. In the second and third cases a judgment was entered for the defendants, later courts in all cases found for the city, and the actions were upheld by the supreme court. W. S. Warner was attorney for the city and George H. Myers for the plaintiffs. During the three years he served as city attorney Mr. Warner had six cases in the supreme court and won all of them. An ordinance to provide for the issuance of bonds for the improvement of roads was passed.

A veterinary stable was established in Appleton in 1869. So far as known this was the first. The legislature passed an act incorporating the Wisconsin Odd Fellows Mutual Life Insurance Company.The incorporators were Samuel Ryan, Jr., L. B. Hills, Stoddard Judd, Charles C. Cheeney, A. J. Langworthy, J. A. Roper, Thomas W. Taylor, J. W. Merrill and W. W. Dexter and their associates. The society was duly organized in February by the election of Samuel Ryan, Jr., president; L. B. Hills, secretary; Stoddard Judd, treasurer. The new city officials in April, 1869, were as follows: W. H. Lanphear, president of council; John Stephens, engineer and surveyor; J. C. Glines, pound master; Dr. Henry Graham, city physician, salary $200 per year; J. E. Harriman, poor master, salary $160 per year; E. C. Foster, city marshal, salary $200 per year. The assessor was allowed $500 per year; clerk of the city council $600 per year; street commissioner $2.50 per day; engineer $3.50 per day; city attorney $300 per year. The Crescent was made the official paper of the city. At the final canvas by the city council of the votes cast at April election G. N. Richmond, democrat, received a majority of 175 over Henry Turner, republican.

The following were the fire officials in 1869: Chief engineer, George Kreiss; first assistant, Dr. B. Douglas; second assistant, John O’Keefe, third assistant, A. L. Smith. Every ward had a special fire warden. At the April session of the council it was concluded at first to accept the proposition of H. H. Teel of Indiana for the improvement of the railway side track.

In April and May, the council on behalf of the city, offered to issue $12,000 in city bonds to Mason and Teel to aid them in constructing the side track railway, the bonds to be delivered when the work was completed. At this date Appleton had out nearly $6,000 in bonds, the last of which would fall due in 1872. It was therefore concluded to make the first payment on the new bonds in 1873, one-twelfth of the principal to be paid annually thereafter with accumulated interest. This was regarded as a large sum to be owed by the city. The citizens were greatly pleased at the action of both the county board and the city council concerning road matters in 1869. In reality it was the greatest step yet taken in the county and secured such improvement in the highways as would be certain to put them in good condition at any season of the year. At the same time the water power men and manufacturers pledged themselves to pay $17,000 in subscription to aid in the construction of the river dam. The work on the dam could not be carried on without the aid of the side track and the side track could not be constructed by Mason and Teel without the aid of the railway, therefore great pressure was brought to bear upon the railway men to induce them to assist to the extent of $25,000 toward the construction of the side track. The city council and the county board took special action. It was now up to the citizens to decide what should be done. It was proposed to submit the question to a vote at a special election. In 1869 perhaps for the first time velocipedes, high ones, were seen on the streets of Appleton. Mr. Kirkwood was probably the first to introduce one. Whenever he appeared crowds gathered to see his performance. Even the dogs chased him and barked furiously at the unusual sight.

The ordinance for the construction of the side track at Appleton was entitled “To aid in Constructing a Railroad from the Main Track of the Chicago and Northwestern Railway Company, Crossing Fox River and the Canal, to the Green Bay and Mississippi Canal Company.” The three important improvements were to be the side track, the river dam and the railway crossing.

The city treasurer’s report for the fiscal year ending May, 1869, showed that the city receipts were $37,303, less $4,530 on hand at the beginning of the year. The total disbursements were $37,489. Thus the disbursements slightly exceeded the receipts. At a meeting of the Lawrence Engine Company in May the following officers were elected: Samuel Griffis, foreman; G. Kamps, first assistant.; J. F. Nicoulin, captain of hose; J. Ryan, secretary; J. E. Roemer, treasurer. The company was in prosperous condition and was prompt and efficient in handling small fires.

The vote on the question of issuing $12,000 in city bonds to aid in the construction of the side track railway was nearly unanimous in favor of the issue. The vote was for the construction of the side track and the river railway crossing and was as follows:

The committee recommended that the bonds should not be delivered until the whole work contracted for between Mason and Teel and the Northwestern Railway should be completed and accepted by the railway company. The route to the river crossing was to be on a line of survey made by the railway engineer through the great ravine lying partly in the Second and Third wards, and extending under College avenue bridge and crossing the river near the foot of Appleton street with a side track as provided in the survey. The city council in May, 1869, formally accepted the contract between Mason & Teel and the Northwestern Railway Company.

In May, 1869, Lord and Vandegrift’s dramatic troup opened in Metropolitan hall with a series of entertainments. They had a full company of professional actors and played standard dramas, one being The Hidden Hand. Large houses witnessed their performances.

In June, 1869, the city council ordered prepared drafts and specifications for three reservoirs to be built along College avenue. The council of Appleton appropriated $300 with which to entertain the editorial fraternity of the state on their contemplated visit to the city. Frantz and Perrelle took the contract for building the reservoirs in the Second ward. They were paid $200 on account. The state law prohibited the selling of liquor to Indians. One of the Appleton saloonkeepers violated this law as he claimed unknowingly; but he was fined $30 including costs for his mistake. A committee was appointed to select a site for the new pound and take steps to have it constructed.

In July the common council contemplated the purchase of the Edgarton property at the corner of Edwards and Drew streets and College avenue for $6,000 as contracted for by the board of education, payable in a series of years. The council were urged to build thereon a schoolhouse that should cost $25,000, believing that the growth of the city warranted such a large expenditure. It was urged at this time that the city should at once have water works, a new city hall, two steam fire engines, suitable engine buildings and several additional schoolhouses. The mayor and clerk were authorized to contract with David Smith for lots 4, 5 and 9 and 10, block 30, Second ward, for school purposes and to issue bonds for the same.

In August the council of Appleton forbade all persons licensed to sell liquor to sell or give away thereafter any intoxicants of any kind to certain men, naming them, who were in the habit of getting drunk. This ordinance was posted throughout the city. During the fall of 1869 the city council did a vast work in building and improving the road and streets. “Now that Mason and Teel have made a dead failure in their attempt to build the side track and permanent river dam, they having no money, should not every business man in town unite in a stock company to make the enterprise successful?” — (Crescent, September 4, 1869.) “Mason and Teel have not surrendered up their contract with the Northwestern company although they are in default. Do they mean to stand in the way of an effort to build the side track?” –(Crescent, September 18, 1869.) It was announced late in 1869 that a newspaper would soon be established in Appleton by John Cabman of Oshkosh, to be called the Appleton Independent.

In the winter of 1870 the wood manufacturers of Appleton were overwhelmed with timber brought in by farmers in greater quantities than usual, to make up for their losses from the low price of wheat and other farm products. Every wooden manufacturing concern took occasion to stock up to the extreme limit.

In January, 1870, there was strong talk of establishing here a blast furnace. It was stated that should one thus be established and need assistance, scores of farmers throughout the county would be ready to take stock in the enterprise. It was stated by the Crescent that Appleton stood ready to invest $50,000 in a stock company to establish a blast furnace. Every reasonable inducement was held out at this time to secure that industry.

The old settlers of Appleton held their annual festival in January at the Levake House. J. S. Buck presided. The supper was one of the best ever given in any public place in the city. The attendance was small owing to the bad weather. The officers elected for the coming year were as follows: Samuel Ryan, Jr., president; J. W. Carhart, Jr., secretary; Jackson Tibbits, treasurer. Many in- teresting stories were told and toasts responded to at this meeting. Humorous reminiscenses provoked the mirth and enjoyment of those present.

A large temperance meeting was held in the Methodist church, Appleton, in January. The audience was addressed by Rev. G. C. Haddock. He took for his topic, “Who’s to Blame?” and thoroughly discussed the temperance platform. At the close of his remarks the pledge was passed around, to which many names were appended. A committee of eight persons was appointed to circulate the pledge throughout the city.

In January, 1870, it was announced that a German paper to be called the Appleton Volksfreund was soon to be issued by Prof. A.Schindelmeissner and G. Selbach; the former was to be editor and the latter publisher. The enormous German population of the county demanded the establishment of this paper.

The first lecture in the course of the Young Men’s Association was by Rev. E. O. Haven of Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois. His subject was “The White Man of America.” It was a beautiful, eloquent and instructive address, and was listened to eagerly by a large audience. Rev. Mr. Tilton delivered the second address later in the season on the subject, “The Art of Using the Mind.” The tickets for the five lectures in the course were placed at $1.

It was suggested in the city council that several important amendments to the city charter should be made. Accordingly a bill containing them was framed and forwarded to the Outagamie member of the Assembly with instructions to secure their passage if possible. In February, 1870, J. N. Stone prepared to establish the second republican paper in Appleton. It was to be called the Outagamie Times and the first number was to appear about the first of March.

By the 20th of February negotiations which had been pending for some time to secure the establishment at Appleton of the blast furnace seemed likely to succeed. The citizens subscribed $50,000 and Edward West donated a site at the foot ot the island for that purpose. The company designed to establish in connection with the furnace a branch for the manufacture of car wheels. Thas was considered one of the most important industries ever projected here.

The Appleton Manufacturing Company, organized in 1870, incorporated and prepared to engage in the manufacture of articles of wood used in the construction of houses and in making cabinet ware. The company was a joint stock concern and the capital was fixed at $25,000. Among the members were: Thomas O’Keefe, Fritz Wettengel, F. Tischer, F. W. Allen, Mathias Gohs, Casper Hauk, Philip Meyer, John O’Keefe, L. L. Hulce, C. Girke, H. Hoffmann.

In the spring a bill to incorporate the Appleton Collegiate Institute was introduced in the legislature. Among the incorporators were Anson BallardDavid Smith, C. L. Fay, J. W. Hutchinson, W. H. Lanphear, R. Z. Mason, G. C. Jones and others. It was designed to have the Institute open some time during 1870.

The Outagamie Times made its appearance about March 1, 1870. It was an eight column sheet and made a fine appearance. The price was fixed at $2 per year. The Volksfreund also made an appearance about the same time. It started with a good subscription list, and good paying patronage. It was also placed at $2 per year.

The Appleton charter was amended in March so that the limits of the city were as follows. All of sections 25, 26, 27, 34, 35 and 36 and the south half of section 23, town 21 north, range 17 east.

In May the Appleton Amateurs were a newly organized base ball club which was officered as follows: President and captain, W. H. Lanphear; vice-president, Frederick Hammond; secretary, De-Forest Hyde; treasurer, W. P. Gooding. The club was composed of the best and most athletic young men of the city. It was hoped it would equal the Badgers of two years before.

G. I. Brewster was elected president of the Young Men’s Association. There was paid out during the previous year $360 to lecturers. The total incidental expenses connected therewith were $90.25. The total receipts for the five lectures were $503.20.

The conditions required by the owners of the blast furnace to induce them to locate here was the construction of the steamboat channel through the entire length of Grand Chute Island and the subsequent erection of water power along that line. Then with the great railway from Manitowoc across this Island and on to the Northern Pacific railway, it meant that Appleton would become a vast manufacturing center. In June it became a fixed fact that Appleton was to have a paper pulp mill, owned and conducted by Bradley Smith & Co. of Chicago. The Appleton Crescent was chosen official organ of the city. In July the council took measures looking to the erection of a city lock-up or calaboose. The county jail was denied them except where persons had been convicted. During July and August work on the blast furnace was conducted steadily and rapidly under the supervision of A. H. Clark. A large force of men was kept employed there for several months. The West canal was being built across Grand Chute Island.

The Waverlys of Appleton and the Island Cities of Neenah played several match games of baseball in 1870. In the first game played the Waverlys had 31 runs and the Island Cities 17; the next Waverlys had 70 and the Island Cities 31. The Waverly players were: Coakley, first base; McAllister, center field; Johnston, catcher; Dunham, left field; Procton, short stop; Simmons, pitcher; Hammond, second base; Briggs, right field; Lanphear, third base. The game lasted three hours; A. E. Davis was umpire. The census this year gave Appleton an actual population of 4,680; the town of Grand Chute, 1,400. In 1860 the population of city and town was 2,345; in 1865 they had 2,666. The newspapers called for the establishment in Appleton of a savings bank and stated that such an institution would be well patronized. In August the Appleton council called for bids for the immediate construction of a building to be used as a poorhouse; the same to be 26×38 feet, two stories high. It was to be finished by September 20. The plan presented by Alderman Schnabel for the building upon the city poor-farm was adopted in August, 1870. Bids for such a building were advertised for. A draw-bridge at the foot of Jackson street in the Fourth ward was ordered built. By September the city lock-up was finished and made a handsome outward appearance. The cells were of iron or steel and very strong.

At the September session a council committee was instructed to negotiate with a responsible party to take charge of the poor farm. This committee was directed to act in conjunction with a committee of the county board on the same subject. Several sewers were petitioned for; also several saloon licenses were asked for. A reward of $5 was offered to the person who should first get a team to the engine in case of a fire. Bids to build the drawbridge at the foot of Jackson street were opened and read. Leonard Williams’ bid for $1,400 was lowest. However all were rejected and other proposals were called for.

In October the following men were allowed $10 each for their services as firemen during the year 1869 as per act of the legislature: S. L. Groves, J. Burke, C. Roemer, P. Golden, J. A. Roemer, A. L. Smith, Ed Finnegan, J. C. Wees, Charles Adkins, E. R. L. Cuthbert, H. Bissing, J. Peterson, F. Peterson, A. W. Ballard, D. O’Keefe, J. O’Keefe, James Ryan, J. Koffend, G. Kamps, B. Douglas, H. Turner, W. F. Ketchum, A. Gifford, S. B. Belding, J. W. Hall, G. Kreiss, S. Griffis and Z. Patton.

The bids to build the bridge across the south branch of Fox river were opened in October; four were received but all were rejected and others were called for. In the next lot the bid of Frank Deimer at $1,250 was accepted. Ed. C. Foster was city marshal. The Edgarton property was ordered leased. The New London Times was established about this time. In the second course of lectures before the Young Men’s Association the following were engaged: Elizabeth Cady Stanton, George Francis Train, Justin McCarthy and Mr. Locks (Nasley). Tickets for six lectures cost $2.

The Appleton Dramatic Association rendered the drama “Married Life” in November at Metropolitan Hall. Misses Spearman, Brown, Mason, Phinney and Proctor and Messrs. Richmond, Montgomery, Ballard, Clark and Patton presented the play. The newspapers praised the rendition of the piece. Later they acted “A Glance at New York,” and “Handy Andy.”

The contract to build the bridge over the south channel of Fox river was awarded to Tibbits & Reynolds at $2,365. The proposal of Charles Wolcott to care for the poorhouse and farm by the year for $400 was accepted. The offer of Z. C. Fairbanks for the south 20 acres of Lot 2 in the First ward to be used as a cemetery was accepted. City bonds to the amount of $1,860 bearing 7 per cent were ordered issued to pay for the building on the city poorfarm. It was found that the bonds were not well received by the public, whereupon the sum necessary to erect the building was borrowed by the city.

“Is it creditable to Appleton to have the saloons in full blast in violation of law and license every Sunday night? Where is the plice force?” –(Crescent, December 3, 1870.) The First National bank began business in December.

Parish, Webb & Welly secured a contract from the Standard Oil Company of Cleveland, Ohio, early in 1871 for 12,000,000 oil-barrel staves and headings to match; the company was given three years to complete the contract and received about $400,000 for the job. The famous family of Hutchinsons gave one of their excellent musical programs in Appleton in January. The act of January authorized Appleton to fund its corporate debt and limited the amount of its bonded debt.

In January the legislature empowered the mayor and council of Appleton to fund the corporate debt and for that purpose to issue bonds not to exceed $20,000 and levy a tax to meet the bonds and interest. Owing to doubt as to just what the city debt was the council early in 1871 appointed William S. Warner, James M. Phinney and Edward West to investigate and examine all receipts and expenditures from the organization of the city up to January 1, 1871, and present to this council the true condition of each fund of the city.

The Appleton Lyceum was well attended; many of the leading citizens took part in the debates; popular subjects were discussed; Mr. Boyd was president.

In the second statement of the First National Bank made in March there were shown individual deposits of $71,108.18; circulation outstanding $43,000; capital stock paid in $50,000; bills discounted $93,766.89. Herman Erb was cashier; G. W. Spaulding, Ephriam C. Goff and William S. Warner directors. “530 citizens of Appleton ask the legislature for the privilege of deciding whether they shall or shall not create a debt, while 150 remonstrate against it. And the legislature disregards the wishes of the four-fifths and tells Appletonians that they are not capable of governing themselves.” —(Crescent, March 25, 1871.) The mayor and council procured the draft of the bill to fund the debt of the city of Appleton and sent it to C. E. McIntosh, assemblyman from this county. The latter added two sections (9 and 10) limiting the bonded indebtedness to $75,000 for the term of fifteen years and procured the passage of the bill thus changed under a suspension of the rules without consulting the mayor, council or citizens of Appleton. Immediately the council petitioned the legislature to repeal sections 9 and 10.The senate passed the bill to repeal but was pocketed in the house through the influence of Mr. Mcintosh who when taken to task replied that he would report back the bill if he was furnished with a copy of the resolutions passed by the council asking for the repeal. A certified copy was thereupon sent to him, but on his motion the whole matter was indefinitely postponed. The council thereupon asked the legislature to repeal the objectionable sections and to reenact the law containing a clause submitting the subject to a vote of the people. The following citizens were appointed to present this matter to the legislature: Byron Douglas, H. L. Blood, Samuel Ryan, Jr., George C. Jones, Samuel BoydEdward West, J. N. Stone and A. J. Reid. The above action was taken unanimously by the council, March 14, 1871.

In 1871 the Appleton Cemetery Association was reorganized by an act of the legislature. The election of Jackson Tibbits, Samuel Ryan, Jr., N. M. Edwards, James T. Reeve, Joseph E. HarrimanJames W. Hutchinson, William A. Breitung, William G. Worton and Cosby Ketchum as trustees at a meeting February 20, 1871, was legalized.

The Appleton Savings Bank was incorporated in March, the incorporators being Aug. Ledgard Smith, E. C. Goff, George W. Spaulding, William S. Warner, James T. Reeve, Welcome Hyde, William G. Whorton, Charles G. Adkins, L. D. Nickerson and their associates. The capital stock was fixed at $25,000, but could be increased to any sum not exceeding $250,000. As soon as the capital was subscribed and twenty per cent paid in they could commence business.

In April the blast furnace was put in full operation for the first time; a large crowd gathered to see the melted iron run, they waited till about 10 o’clock in the morning, April 13. The Second National Bank was almost ready for business in April, with a capital of $50,000. C. G. Adkins was to be president and Alfred Galpin cashier.”We learn that another new National bank is about to be established in this city with a capital of $50,000. Some of the best men of the city are engaged in this enterprise, Mr. C. G. Adkins is to be president.” –( Post, April 20, 1871).

The officers of the city Fire Department in April were as follows: Capt. H. Turner, chief engineer; J. W. Hall, first assistant; J. O’Keefe, second assistant; Webb Ketchum, third assistant; Louis West, P. Golden, Dan O’Keefe and Webb Ketchum fire wardens of the four wards in the order named. In one week in April, the blast furnace turned out 116- 3/4 tons of iron; the average yield of the ore was about 64 per cent. The receipts of Appleton for the fiscal year 1870-1 were $54,157.84, less $4,094.87 on hand at the beginning of the year; the expenses were the same less $653.73 on hand at the end of the year.

The Manufacturers National Bank succeeded to the business of the Appleton Bank and David Smith & Company, bankers, in May C. G. AdkinsAlfred GalpinMayor RichmondG. I. Brewster, C. H. Ware, J. E. Peabody and Louis Schintz were the first directors and C. G. Adkins president, and Alfred Galpin cashier.

In his inaugural message in May, 1871, Mayor Richmond reviewed matters of interest to the city, the previous council had made large expenditures and had left an indebtedness that must be taken care of —$19,629.21 which with the bonds to be met made the total to be raised $26,439.01 besides the current expenses. The tax thus must necessarily be large. He stated that a railroad to Manitowoc was soon to be built, the work having already been commenced.

The incorporators of the Appleton Savings Bank were as follows: Aug. Ledgard Smith, E. C. Goff, George W. Spaulding, William G. Whorton, Charles G. Adkins and L. D. Nickerson. The capital stock was $25,000, but could be increased to $250,000.

Stock for the Appleton Savings Bank was subscribed in May and June, $16,000 in a short time. Herman Erb was at the head of this movement.

The fine verses of Eben E. Rexford appeared in the papers at this time. Miss Allie F. Conkey wrote the carrier’s address for the Crescent; it was well constructed. Of the new First National Bank Aug. Ledgard Smith was to be the first president, it was rumored, G. W. Spaulding was city poor-master in 1871; the new poorhouse was in use, but not well patronized; the city continued to farm out its paupers in part. In July the alleged First National bank became the Manufacturers National. J. P. Beach was connected with Captain Stone of the Times in August. The postoffice was broken into in September and robbed of $60 worth of currency and stamps; the robber was caught later.

The completion of the Grand Chute Island Water Power for 80 factories late in 1870 was made the occasion of a public demonstration.The city council passed a series of resolutions among which were the following:

“Whereas, Edward West in the recent enterprises he has undertaken and carried to completion, in improving the hydraulic facilities of our river, has conferred benefits on our young city commensurate only in importance with the enlargement of the canal.

“Resolved, That the mayor appoint a committee of four on the part of the council and twenty-six on the part of the citizens to take the necessary steps for a suitable recognition of these important events.” The following residents were named on these committees: Aldermen Harriman, Schobel, Heath and Barker (the four) and R. Z. Mason, J. N. Stone, John H. Whorton, Theodore Conkey, H. L. Blood, D. Hammel, G. Kreiss, N. Pauley, C. G. Adkins, Ed. Steffen, G. I. Brewster, S. R. Willy, G. N. Richmond, R. R. Bateman, Samuel Ryan, Jr., Alexander Reid, J. W. Hutchinson, P. Esselburn, H. Ketchum, E. Kamps, H. Erb, A. A. Babcock, J. Nolan, G. Mory, W. D. Reynolds and G. W. Spaulding.

The ovation was held January 4, 1871, at Bertschy’s Hall which was crowded by the manufacturers and other business men of Appleton and vicinity. Mayor A. L. Smith presided and music was furnished by Boyington’s Band. R. Z. Mason’s address reviewed the whole progress of the water improvement as well as the growth of the city. Letters from distinguished men who could not be present were read. Mayor Smith on behalf of the citizens congratulated Mr. West on the great benefit he had conferred on Appleton and was answered with much feeling by Mr. West; at the same time he presented him with a handsome service of silver as a slight testimonial of the high regard of the citizens. On the silver was the following engraving: “Presented to Edward West by the citizens of Appleton as a token of their appreciation of his enterprise in building the Grand Chute Island Canal.” Other speakers were Samuel Ryan, Jr., Jackson TibbitsAnson Ballard, G. C. Jones, J. F. Atkinson and P. S. Bennett. A fine supper at the Waverly Hotel was enjoyed; many toasts were responded to by leading citizens.

About the middle of December, 1871, a fire destroyed thirteen buildings in Appleton near the center of the block between Oneida and Morrison streets on Callege avenue. The loss was about $20,000.

In the spring of 1872 the city set apart 20 acres for cemetery purposes. It was resolved that if the Cemetery Association would plat, map and stake this tract, the city would deed it 15 of the 20 acres thus set apart. In April, $6,000 of city bonds were sold at 96 cents on the dollar. G. W. Spaulding, poor-master, was thanked by the Council for the faithful performance of his duties for 1871. An official map of Appleton was completed about this time. The total receipts for the fiscal year 1871-2 were $61,315.03, less $653.78 on hand at the beginning of the year. The expenses were the same less $1,055.64 on hand at the end of the year. Among the expenses was $15,795.23 for judgments against the city.

In his annual address in May, 1872, Mayor Goff stated that the city debt was $17,330. The city schools were flourishing, the number of teachers being 12 and the number of children 1,666. In addition there were two private German schools where English was also taught. The Appleton Collegiate Institute conducted during the past two years upon the Pestellozian and kindergarten methods was an unqualified success. The Manitowoc, Appleton and New London Railway was in operation within ten miles of the city. He announced that the Milwaukee & Northern Road would probably be extended to Appleton in 1872. He recommended a rigid enforcement of the fire limits ordinance, the payment of city orders at fixed dates in order to avoid suits and strict economy in all expenditures.

The legislature in March, 1872, authorized the Council of Appleton to issue city bonds with coupons attached to the amount of $10,000 for the purpose of purchasing steam fire apparatus and building an engine house. Appleton levied a tax of $34,308.23 for all purposes; the largest item was city judgment $12,941.81; $1,000 was levied for support of the poor; general city tax $6,000; about $5,800 for district schools. In October the Manufacturers National bank building, the Levake House, two drug stores and four other stores were destroyed by fire. It was caused by the careless handling of a burning fluid. The total loss was about $80,000. The Appleton Library and Lecture Association had the following officers: Dr. J. T.Rewe, president; Prof. Sherwood, secretary; H. A. Foster, treasurer.

At a benefit banquet to the proprietors of the New Levake House in January, 1873, the hotel was crowded with old settlers, Christie’s cornet band furnished the music. Col. H. L. Blood presided and there were many vice-presidents. Dr. G. M. Steele was chairman of the committee on toasts. The following were the toasts and responses: “Our Hosts and Hostesses,” H. L. Blood; “The Ladies,” William Kennedy; “The Press,” Sam. Ryan, Jr., “The Pioneers,” Mr. Randall; “Agriculture, Commerce and Manufactures,” Capt. G. W. Spaulding; “City of Appleton,” Mayor E. C. Goff; “The North Pole,” P. S. Bennett; “Our Public Schools,” A. H. Conkey; “Lawrence University,” Prof. J. C. Foge. Later, all who wished danced in Bertschy’s hall. The supper was very elaborate and greatly enjoyed.

A fire in February, 1873, destroyed the Briggs sash factory, the Riggs sawmill and the Lederer sash factory; total loss about $22,000.

Rev. A. B. Randall came to Grand Chute in the winter of 1847-8 to select a claim; could not stop in Appleton as there were no houses and no village; stopped at Mr. Murch’s; built a shanty in the spring of 1848; there was another near the college, but it had no roof; went back after his wife and found upon his return J. F. Johnston here. A. P. Lewis said that any one could make a good living in this county on 40 acres if he had no more than 24 children. All this and much more was related at the old settlers’ annual reunion on Washington’s birthday, 1873.

Anson Ballard died in April, 1873, and the funeral services were conducted by the Masons. In addition remarks were made by Revs. Ebbs, Doe, Tilton and Dr. Steele. “The attendance of people was the largest we have yet witnessed at any similar occasion since residing in this city,” said the Crescent. He had been the founder of the Collegiate Institute and at his death was president of its board of directors. The directors of the Manufacturers’ National Bank, of which he was a member, passed suitable resolutions, as did the directors of the Collegiate Institute. In his will he left $50,000 to the Institute generally and $25,000 for its gymnasium, reading rooms and library all to be free to the public. This bequest was made upon condition that the citizens of Appleton should raise as much more to be invested in buildings and equipment. The residue of his estate (estimated at $100,000) was to be divided equally between his widow and the Institute.

In April, 1873, the new fire steamer, with two hose carts and 1,000 feet of hose arrived from Chicago. It was at once installed in the engine house, and the old hand engine “was turned out in the cold.” A few days afterward it was given severe tests and proved satisfactory, throwing water through long lines of hose from 200 to 250 feet. The steamer and apparatus cost $5,775.

As Appleton did not have an adequate supply of pure water for ordinary use, the proposition of sinking artesian wells was broached and discussed in 1873. In August the voters of Appleton ratified the change of route of the Milwaukee and Northern route by a majority of 672. The city was to aid this line with $50,000. This vote meant the extension of the road across the river and later its extension to Wolf river. Only six men in the city voted against it. Appleton was assessed $386,082 personal property and $1,461,105 realty; total $1,847,187.

At the October session of the Council the poor committee recommended selling the present poor farm and uniting with the county in a union farm. A night police at large was authorized. Bonds to build an engine house were ordered sold.

Riverside Cemetery was greatly improved. In October and November 20 or 30 bodies were removed from the old cemetery to the new. The others were to be removed in 1874. It was advised that an adjacent tract of ten to twenty acres should be bought. Much to adorn the cemetery was done in 1873.

At the pioneer festival at the Levake house in January, 1874, there was a large attendance. The old Masonic block which was built in 1864 by John H. Hart was destroyed by fire in April, 1874; the fire company kept the fire confined to that building In April, the Appleton council passed a resolution appropriating $800 to Reid & Miller for furnishing 10,000 copies of a pamphlet describing the city as a desirable place for residence and business; and the further sum of $200 for cuts and maps to go with the circulars. The newspapers here threatened injunction proceedings, alleging the act was a violation of the city charter.

Late in April, the bridge from Grand Chute Island to the flat connecting the main river bridge with the south side of the river was undermined by the water, crashed down carrying with it the bulk head, this let loose a lot of logs owned by Doer & Steele which swept down with all the rest against the bridge in the rear of the Island foundry sweeping it also away and again all went crashing down to the Atkinson furniture factory, sweeping them away like feathers, nearly all thus accumulated sweeping on carrying away the Island and shore bridges and finally all crashing to pieces and rushing over the lower dam. Nearly the whole flat between the steamboat canal and the south branch was at once covered with water. The bells were rung, fire alarms sounded and all the citizens turned out to witness the unusual and damaging sight, so far as they could see it in the night. The total damage to all interests was about $15,000.

In April the council fixed the retail liquor license at $150, the vote in the council being 4 to 4, Mayor Willy giving the casting vote in the affirmative. Peter Esselburn was president of the council. John Stephens was chosen city engineer; Jackson Tibbets, street commissioner; Dr. J. W. Sugell, city physician; Capt. G. W. Spaulding, poor master.

The act of March 7 authorized the authorities of Appleton to fund the corporate indebtedness and to issue bonds therefor not exceeding $10,000 and to levy a tax to meet the bonds and interest. The legislature enacted that Appleton should levy annually $1,000 for the poor; 1/2 of one per cent for ward purposes, and for all other purposes except principal and interest on the city debt a tax not exceeding $12,000 with several provisos. Hyde & Harriman owned a fine mineral spring in the Fourth ward, Appleton, to which they gave the name “Telulah.” The spring was already famous for its medicinal virtues and was visited by scores in search of better health. The city contracted with an outside company to supply the corporation, with gas, but the company failed to meet the requirements of the contract, whereupon other steps to secure gaslights weer taken.

The Appleton Chamber of Commerce was organized and a charter adopted in September, 1874; over twenty persons promptly signed the constitution and became members. A committee was appointed to secure a larger membership. The following were the first officers: A. L. Smith, president; David Smith and George Kreiss, vice-presidents; A. J. Reid, secretary; J. E. Harriman, treasurer; Theodore Conkey, E. C. Goff, J. H. Whorton, G. N. Richmond, Sam. Ryan, Jr., H. J. Rogers and G. I. Brewster, directors.

After Mayor Willy went abroad Peter Esselburn, president of the council, became acting mayor. He refused to unite with the council in the proceedings to have Reid & Miller print 10,000 advertising pamphlets, on the ground that it was a violation of the charter, as the contract was not let to the highest bidder. The council thereupon prepared to take action against him.

Victoria Woodhall lectured at Bertschy’s hall in May, 1874, on “Tried as by Fire or the True and False Socially.”

It was announced in January, 1875, that if Appleton would take $100,000 stock in the enterprise, certain capitalists would establish there a cotton factory costing all told about $600,000. It was urged that the location of such an industry here would increase the population by fully 6,000. The State Firemen’s Association met at Appleton in February; there were present delegations from a score of cities.

In 1875 the legislature passed an act to codify, consolidate and a.mend the act incorporating Appleton and the amendments thereto. The limits of the city were fixed, as follows: All of sections 25, 26, 27, 34, 35 and 36 and the south half of section 23, town 21, range 17. The city was divided into six wards. Annual elections were ordered held in April of each year, the elective officers being mayor, treasurer, marshal, attorney, clerk, street commissioner and three assessors to be chosen at large and in each ward two aldermen and one supervisor, Other officers were provided for. The powers of the corporation were fully prescribed and set forth. In March, the legislature authorized Appleton to issue corporate bonds to the amount of $50,000 for the purpose of constructing waterworks for the city. They were to be called “Water Construction Bonds.” A sinking fund was provided to meet the bonds and interest.

The Archibald Wagon Wheel Factory (J. H. Whorton, W. W. Hutchinson and C. Ketchum) was established here in 1875; they started with a capital of $30,000; draft wagon wheels were to be the product.

The total amount of outstanding city orders in 1874-5 was $49,553.22. Of these there were canceled $29,605.37; there was left in the treasurer’s hands $6,078; the balance of orders outstanding at the end of the year was $13,770.95. The total amount of bonds outstanding in April, 1875, was $43,000. The $43,000 in oustanding bonds were as follows: Grand Chute Plank road judgment bonds, $25,000; funding debt bonds, $10,000; railroad bonds, $1,000; fire department bonds, $7,000.

Edward Clifford and John Dillon appeared here in reportoire in the spring of 1875 at Bertschy’s hall. “The Little Mother,” “His Last Legs,” “O’Callaghan,” etc. It was Clifford’s company, the other actors being Will O’Keefe, D. G. Loane, George Kirk and the actresses Miss Dillon, Miss Marlow, Miss Beebe and others.

In November, 1872, Rowell & Jennings began the manufacture, in a small way, of agricultural instruments and by the following spring had ready 200 horse hoe cultivators. In the spring of 1873 Mr. Rowell bought out Mr. Jennings, continued the work and began the manufacture of seeders. Early in 1874 he sold a half interest in the factory to Mr. Morris and under the firm name of Rowell & Morris manufactured seeders and cultivators. By 1875 they were doing a. large business. In April, Oshkosh was almost wholly destroyed by fire; Appleton rendered great assistance.

In May and June, Telulah Springs were attended by large numbers of people in search of better health. Wool buyers were thick in Appleton in June; the price was about 43 cents a pound, but ran up for a short time to 48 and 50 cents. There was far more than enough wool received to keep the Hutchinson woolen mill busy. At this time it was announced that a new woolen mill to cost $200,000, largest in the State, was soon to be established here at the old Whorton sawmills. There were several baseball clubs in the county. At Appleton were the Grand Chutes and College Boys, at Kaukauna the Roughs and Readys, Buchanan Boys of Buchanan, the Little Chute Wooden Shoes; the Alerts of Appleton. In order to secure the large woolen factory from the East, the city was asked to take $75,000 stock in that enterprise; that sum would insure $400,000 of eastern capital invested here. Welcome Hyde did more than any other citizen to secure this industry.

Although the city had a poor farm and house and a keeper, but one person up to June, 1875, had been kept there; the paupers were still farmed out; the taxpayers began to complain; George K.reiss was poor master. By a vote of four in favor and three against the council ordered stopped all street preaching both on week days and on Sundays. There were ordered purchased 600 feet of hose and a fire alarm bell in June, 1875. Much work was done on the ravines and streets. The city census of June, 1875, showed 2,321 males and 2,416 females, total 6,736 population in Appleton.

The Turn-Fest held by the State Germans at Appleton in June, 1875, was a splendid success. It was continued four days and was not dull at any moment, there being present an immense crowd. All cities in this part of the State were represented by delegations. The city was gaily decorated and bands and processions took possession of the streets. Their acrobatic exercises at Pierce Park drew vast crowds.

Grand Opera for the first time was witnessed in Appleton in July, when the Redpath Opera Company presented Martha to a large audience in Bertschy’s hall. Among the players were E. S. Payson, basso; Miss Nichols, soprano; Miss Clark, contralto; Mr. Clark, tenor; Mr. Howard, pianist. The company returned after a few days and presented the Spectre to another large audience. The Appleton Cornet Band was reorganized in August, under the leadership of Robert Christie; it numbered fourteen members. This gave the city three band organizations.

In 1875 the Whortons bored for artesian water at their sawmill in Appleton and struck a flowing quantity at the depth of 119 feet. Immediately after this success was announced, Judge Harriman bored for the same at Telulah Springs.

In October, 1875, Prof. Mickler’s English and Italian Opera Company presented the opera “Faust” in Appleton. The big billiard match in Appleton in November, 1875, resulted as follows: Schlosser, 6 games; Dorr, 4; Johnson, 4; A. L. Smith, 2; H. D.Smith, 2; Eb. Johnson, 2; Turner, 1. The match was played in the billiard hall of the Waverly House.

A reservoir was ordered built at the Third ward engine house in October, 1875. The city sold to A. L. Smith for $5,080 a. part of block 30 in the Second ward near Drew street and College avenue.

Another fire engine was purchased in 1876; the old hand engine was sold to Holland, Michigan, for $500. David Smith, banker, died in March; he had been here thirteen years or more. The Grand Chute Engine Company asked permission to call their engine Anson Ballard. The engine of the Lawrence company was called Amos Story, after the first mayor. The chief at this time was authorized to buy 1,150 feet of hose. A new draw-bridge was ordered built over the canal above the third lock.

The Actives of Appleton and the Amateurs of Oshkosh played the last ball game of a series, at the former place. Trouble arose, the Actives refused to continue and the game was thus forfeited to the Amateurs; the umpire was “outrageous,” of course. In May, A. L. Smith fitted up the upper story of Montgomery’s drug store for a young men’s free literary society; the object was to keep them from vice. The council ordered four reservoirs built.

Each fire company was composed of twenty men, and each was allowed $200 a year by the city. The marshal was directed to arrest all persons guilty of selling liquor without a license; there seemed to be many doing it. A motion in the council to ask the county board to appropriate $1,000 toward the Centennial celebration was lost –18 to 5. A. W. Ballard was chief of the fire department. The saloon license was $150 and the druggists $50. Twelve acres were added to the cemetery. In all six reservoirs were ordered built; $140 was the bid on each in case all were taken. There was a strong demand now for artesian wells and water. Alexander Reid conducted the Post; Ryan Brothers, the Crescent; and H. W. Meyer the Volksfreund. The 4th of July was celebrated at Telulah Park. In 1876, the Actives beat the Atlantics of Milwaukee by 13 to 8; they also beat the Amateurs of Oshkosh, Mill Cities of Neenah and the Berlins.

The total debt of Appleton in April, 1876, was $43,903.65; the bonded debt was $42,000. The $10,000 funding bonds authorized to be issued by the funding bill were ordered issued in March; these bonds were offered in sums of $1,000 each to the highest bidder. In 1876, the Appleton Iron Company went into bankruptcy. Prof.Swing of Chicago lectured at Bertschy’s hall on “Thoughts on the Fine Arts.” In that hall was rendered at this time the opera “Martha” by the Payton Company; also “Love’s Test” and “Night Vertigo.”

The council in 1877 leased the park at Appleton and Lawrence streets for five years from Reeder Smith, the lease to date from May 1, 1878. A room over the postoffice was leased for a council chamber from A. L. Smith. This year Appleton was authorized to issue bonds to an amount not exceeding $15,000 for the purpose of rebuilding the bridge across Fox river. The aggregate amount of the bonds and all other indebtedness were not to exceed five per cent of the value of the taxable property as shown by the last assessment. A tax to meet the bonds was provided.

The Waverly house became the property of B. T. Rogers who refitted and refurnished it and made it one of the best hotels in Northern Wisconsin. It became the home of the summer tourists who began to arrive in large numbers about this time to receive the benefits of the Telulah Springs which already were known far and wide. Five plans for a bridge over the river at Pearl street were received and considered. Each plan had good points and the committee was unable to decide which should be used and recommended that all be rejected and new ones called for embodying the best points of the five plans.

According to the Post there was expended on the water power in 1877 the sum of $167,200 and elsewhere in the city $44,400.

Work on the gas works was begun in 1877; Carpenter & Company were the contractors; the gas mains arrived in August and on the 13th, Monday, the first were laid 4 1/2 feet deep. Four months after the ground was broken the plant was in operation –in October; the main building was 116×30 feet; three miles of main pipe had been laid. By October the leading business concerns were using it. There was a gaslight hop at Turner’s hall October 26, when it was used there for the first time before a large crowd. Waterworks were the next great step in advance, it was declared. In June, H. H. Frost, fish commissioner, put 100,000 shad in the river at Appleton. A new dam over the river was commenced in June. The Appleton Shooting Club was organized in September; H. A. Foster was president; there were about fifteen members at first. The Fox River Pulp and Paper Company started business this year. Konemic Lodge dedicated their new hall in November. Susan B. Anthony lectured at Bertschy’s hall on “Woman’s Wants — Bread, not the Ballot.”

Big things accomplished by the city by 1877: The new dam 10 feet high and 440 feet long costing $10,000; the proposed gas works to be built by S. D. Carpenter & Company; the mammoth pulp and paper mills in process of construction to cost about $60,000; the Appleton Paper and Pulp Mills; Genessee Flouring Mills; Appleton Flouring Mills; Lawrence Mills; sash, door and blind factory; Appleton Woolen Mills; Appleton Paper Mills; river improvements.

A big fire early in January, 1878, destroyed Bertschy’s block and hall, Bertschy & Johnson’s dry goods store; the fixtures of the Post Publishing Company;; damaged Patton Brothers stock of groceries; damaged Barrett & Schloesser’s stock of hardware and did other damage. The origin of the fire was unknown.The total loss was about $50,000, about $20,000 of which was covered by insurance. The Crescent and Volksfreund tendered the Post all necessary materials to continue its issue.

In January, the council passed an ordinance disbanding Engine Company No. 2, known as Grand Chute Company and turning over the engine and apparatus to the chief engineer; the members were allowed 24 hours to remove their personal effects. This resolution was carried unanimously. Steps to secure a new horse hose cart were taken. Mr. McAllister of the Grand Chute Engine Company was paid $10 for his faithful services as fireman. A vote of thanks was tendered to the members of each fire company and to the citizens generally for their services at the late fire. The Oshkosh fire company was also thanked for their aid during the fire.

Teutonic Fire Engine Company No. 3 and Badger Fire Engine Company No. 2 were organized in February, 1878, and each requested to be put in charge of the apparatus of the old Grand Chute Company. The council recognized the first mentioned and ordered it placed in possession of the Grand Chute apparatus and engine, but an amendment to this action substituted the Badger Company for the Teutonic Company. The council ordered issued $10,000 in city bonds to take up the old bonds and interest that had not been provided for.

In April, 1878, the bonded indebtedness of Appleton was as follows:

The receipts during the previous year were $81,179.11 less $5,912 on hand at the beginning of the year. The expenditures were $80,646.33, less $4,805.43 on hand at the end of the year.

The Edward Clifford Theatrical Company in March, 1878, presented “Ingomar,” “Camille,” “Barbarian,” etc.

The city was divided into two fire districts in the spring; the first to comprise the First, Second and Sixth wards, and the second to comprise the Third, Fourth and Fifth wards; each district was; to have one of the two fire companies and engines. A telephone to unite the two districts was proposed. A team was ordered bought for the fire department and a keeper for the poorhouse was ordered hired in May, 1878. Telephones were being put in different parts of Appleton in May. The council rented offices over the Manufacturers’ National Bank in 1878. The proposition of S. D. Carpenter & Company for the establishment of waterworks was considered, A new bridge over Fox river in the Second ward was proposed.

The pound was ordered sold in September, but for not less than $1,000. The Appleton Globe was issued in September by G. E. Mendall and wife. In September, Appleton citizens assembled to raise funds for the relief of the yellow fever stricken cities of the southwest; in one evening $750 was subscribed. The citizens’ purse finally exceeded $1,300; Odd Fellows, $350; Masons, $50; B’nai B’rith, $50; Knights of Honor, $50. About $2,000 was raised in all –a magnificent outpouring of pure benevolence. W. P. Hanchett; representing an Eastern company, made a proposition to the council to supply the city with water from Lake Winnebago.

The manufacture of steel wire horsenails was begun in February, 1878. In May, the city bought in Illinois a fine team of Clydesdales, matched bay horses, for the fire department; they cost $315. In May, Telulah Driving Park was formally opened to the public by Judge Harriman; there the fancy drivers and carriages were shown. John Dillon, the actor, was here in June. The Teachers’ Library Association was organized this year. Beecher lectured here on “The Wastes and Burdens of Society.” The 4th of July, 1878, was celebrated at Telulah Park. The Kalmback Rifles from Fort Howard drilled. Capt. J. H. Marston was marshal of the day.The Calithumpians gave a display that was keenly enjoyed –by the boys and girls. The fire companies were out. Hon. W. C. Silverthorn was orator; Prof. Zache spoke in German. It was a real barbecue with roasted ox. There were also acrobatic performances at the park. Fireworks and balls in Turner’s and Bertschy’s halls closed the day; admission to the park 10 cents.

In the Star Lecture course was Laura E. Dainty’s recitations — “Poor Little Joe,” “The Volunteer’s Wife,” “How We Saved St. Michael’s,” “Mother and Poet,” etc. A railway accident at Mud Creek killed one or more. Mrs. E. Y. Richmond issued a volume of verse –“Poems of the Western Land”– in 1878. Waterworks were urgently talked of this year. The city borrowed temporarily $2,000 in December, 1878; the purchase of a market place was considered.

In 1878 important improvements were made in Appleton– streets, sewers, culverts, wing dams and bridges were improved, the amount expended being $4,624. For the support of the poor $1,568 was paid; the fire department cost $2,810; the printing bill amounted to $911; elections cost $381; gas for city lighting cost $1,059; total city expenses for 1878 were $18,173; city debt to the amount of $12,630 was liquidated; the total expenditures were:

As $12,630 of this debt had already been provided for the real bonded debt was $104,000. The assessed valuation of’the city was $1,833,920.

The opera “Pinafore” was rendered here in 1879 by the Oshkoh Amateurs under Prof. Parkinson; it became the rage at once.The boy’s reading room in Smith’s block was conducted by the ladies. Henry Franz was paid $20 per month to manage the city poor farm. A. L. Smith bored an artesian well this year. It was estimated at this time that to get artesian water, wells would have to be bored 600 feet at a cost of $1,500. D. A. Chappell of Chicago was here in March to consult about the proposed waterworks. In the spring of 1879 the citizens began to favor the proposition for the city to buy Telulah Park –20 to 30 acres– including the spring, in order to provide a public breathing-place for the city. Boult’s new flour mill was put in operation.

Miss Sophia Walker of Appleton was early a student at the University, her uncle being Mason C. Darling. She published the first magazine in Wisconsin entitled “The Badger State Monthly.” She went to California and published the “Pacific Monthly” and later was correspondent from the Sandwich Islands and South America for San Francisco and New York papers. The first article from her pen was published in the Crescent and was entitled “A Railroad to the Moon” Her nom de plume was Lisle Lester.