Part 10, pp. 570-590


KAUKAUNA was first visited by French explorers in 1634 or 1638, after which date white traders were here more or less continuously to secure the furs collected by the Indians. An account of these early visitations will be found elsewhere in this volume. In 1780 Capt. J. Long with twenty French Canadians and thirty-six Fox and Sioux Indians under Waupasha, went from Mackinac to Prairie du Chien where they found Captain Langlade guarding 360 packs of furs; he brought back 300 of the packs and burned the rest to keep them from falling into the hands of the English. This expedition passed along the Lower Fox river.

Dominique Ducharme, a French Canadian, located at Kaukauna in 1790 or 1793 and established a trading post with the Menominees and Chippewas; but sold out several years later to his brother Paul Ducharme. The following is the form of the deed given Dominique by the Indians. “In 1793 were present Wabisipine and Tobacnoir who have willingly abandoned and released to Dominique Ducharme the land from the Portage of Big Kaukauna to the end of the prairie below forty acres in length and on the other side opposite the mentioned Portage four acres in width following the length; which the granters are contented and satisfied to lease for two barrels of rum and in witness thereof make their marks.” The old Wabisipine being blind the witness made his mark for him. This is followed by the sign of Wabisipine — a crudely formed figure intended to represent an eagle; also the sign of Tobacnoir his son, a design representing a leaf of black tobacco, the English translation of the son’s name. The witnesses were C. Hamson and L. Macabey. The deed then continues as follows “But other parties having claimed the Portage have also sold their share and give security from all trouble by accepting the payment of five gallons of rum, for which they are content and satisfied; in which faith they make their marks.” Then followed the marks of Pa-sa-mis, meaning Young Eagle, son of Wabisipine; Old Eagle, signed as before. Also the mark of Ches-mes-bitte no doubt another claimant. Following the signature are the words — “Testified at the Portage of Kaukauna in the year of our Lord, 1793, 31st day of August.” Then follow a record of subsequent payments — “In 1797, August 8, for part of Portage one gallon of rum; in 1798, July 16, to satisfy his sons one barrel of rum; in 1799, to satisfy the difference between themselves one barrel of rum for medicine.” Then follow the closing signatures of the parties to the contract, being D. Du Charme and Du Castor, the latter with his mark, and again the signatures of Tobacnoir, Wachitte, Wabisipine and Tribun. The instrument closes with “Recorded on Thursday, the 18th of December, A. D., 1828, at 10 o’clock. Robert Irwin, Jr., recorder.” — (Green Bay Advocate, 1905.)

It appears that Dominick Ducharne, Paul Ducharme and Augustin Grignon were the first three permanent white settlers of Outagamie county. Dominick was the son of Jean and had two brothers; it is generally understood that he located at Kaukauna in 1790, through his deed from the Indians was signed in 1893. Three or four years after Dominick located there he was joined by his brother Paul. Dominick built a substantial log house and began trading with the Menominees and Chippewas who resided near there to the number of about 1,500. A cut of this old log house, somewhat changed by subsequent owners, is shown herein. In 1803 Dominick returned to Montreal, after which Paul had full management of the trading station, and still later became sole owner of the property. He became indebted to Judge Lawe, to whom he finally sold the property and returned to Green Bay.

Augustin Grignon settled at Kaukauna in 1817 or 1818; he located on the lower rapids where he owned about 1,000 acres on which stood the old Ducharme log house which thus became his property. He built an addition to it and his home became famous to all travelers in this portion of the country owing to his genial and splendid hospitality. He soon built a sawmill and probably a rude grist mill. Grignon owned many cattle, sheep, horses and swine and a large frame barn; also a large frame store building. Across the river on the south side were the fields of the Indians. In 1825 Daniel Whitney built a sawmill there, but finding it did not pay abandoned it, erected an ashery and carried on a large trade with the Indians. In 1835 James M. Boyd, associated with Paul Beaulieu, bought the old Whitney mill and began to operate it. It was about this time that Kaukauna began to be designated “The Lion of Fox River Valley.” In 1850 Mr. Lawe made the first plat of the village — about 17 blocks on the north side; four years later Mr. Spencer made another plat.

In 1814 Colonel McKay and Captain Thomas G. Anderson, with a force of 65 soldiers passed from Mackinac to Prairie du Chien — going up Fox river, they came back the following year. This was an expedition of the War of 1812. In 1827 Grand Kaukalin, meaning this whole section, was credited with a white population of 31 of whom 4 were aliens. Joseph J. Porlier was a lieutenant in the War of 1812; afterward he engaged in the fur trade at Green Bay, but finally came to Kaukauna where he died in 1839. J. B. Bergeon settled there in 1837; he died in 1872 aged 92 years and was believed at that date to be the oldest person in the county. Ephriam St. Louis settled here in 1835.

“Proceeding three miles we came to the beginning of a six mile rapid the greater part of which Lady Bartram and I had to take dry land to overcome in order to relieve the canoe of surplus weight as the men had to wade and carefully avoid the rocks in dragging the canoe up this toilsome obstruction. The slow process of working up the rapids gave time for splendid fishing sport. Black bass were very abundant and I caught enough for supper and breakfast for all on board. Having at length overcome all the rapids, the water being low, the men were all tired and I said ‘camp.’ Lady Bartram prepared the supper. Now, reader, you may take a peep at our party, all squatted flat on the mats, Mr. Anderson (the writer) presiding, with Lady Bartram on the right, Sir Bartram on the left ready to bring the tea kettle, and then Master and Miss Bartram in front, scrambling for the fish eyes in the dish, at which their progenitors exult to witness their activity. * * * My help consisted of men for oarsmen and one for steersman; and using a paddle they no longer craved for soup, pork and biscuit; but the more nutritous hulled corn and tallow replaced them. One quart of corn with two ounces of tallow for seasoning with nothing else, being a day’s rations for each man and on this though their work was severe they fattened like pigs.”-(Narrative of Captain Thomas G. Anderson 1800; Wisconsin Historical Cols., Vol. IX.)

In 1817 the Indian agent at Green Bay reported the following concerning this county. “The Minominees or Folls Avoines estimated at 500 warriors; they reside during the summer on the Follivoine river, Kautong, Green Bay, Little Kackalin, Big Kackalin, Winnebago Lake, River de Loup, Butte des Morts, Vermillion Island and scattering villages on the islands and rivers of the bay.” The Winnebagoes were on Fox river, probably the upper portion. Chippewas are intermingled with the Menominees.

Kacalin, 23 November, 1817.

Mr. Lawe:

Sir and Friend: — I received the honor of your letter in which you advise me of the position of Mr. Jacobs and that he had not yet notified my brother. I believe that it will be best for you to send some one immediately to recommend to him not to extend our credits for our creditors have as much as they can pay.

In regard to Mr. Lusignan you tell me that you have not been able to get a reply from Colonel Boyer. I will send therefore some of my men soon to the Fond du Lac to see what is occurring there and on their return I will tell you what occurs there for about that time I mean to go to La Baye (Green Bay). It is certain from appearances that he is about to do us much harm for the savages draw more to his side than to ours, or to speak more accurately they do not come to us at all especially those I expected.

I beg you not to be rebuffed but to try again with Colonel Boyer for it is better to stop him now than in the spring. I beg you to assure Mr. Caron of my respects.

Nothing else to speak of except to beg you to believe me to be for life your very humble, obedient servant and friend.


Addressed to Mr. Lawe, merchant at La Baye.

“I passed two springs strongly impregnated with sulphur and at night stopped at a rapid of the river called Kakalin, being the last house and the last whites I expected to see for the distance of 250 miles.” — (Samuel S. Starrow, 1817.)

“There was a trail on either side of the river; that on the east side ending at the Rapides des Peres; that on the west side continued on to the Grand Kaukalin, where Mr. Augustin Grignon was settled and had quite comfortable buildings. There was not a cabin of any kind between Depere and Grignon’s and from thence to the Wisconsin portage not a house, though Mr. Grignon built a couple of small cabins two years after at La Grande Butte des Morts.” — (Albert G. Ellis, September, 1822.)

“At Grand Kaukalo they had to unload and cart the goods about one mile and the Indians going into the water, pushing, lifting and hauling the boats over the rapids; then reloading and poling them up to the Grand Chute (where Appleton is now situated). There they had to unload and carry the goods up a hill and down the other side above the Chute which was a perpendicular fall of three or four feet. The Indians would wade in, as many as could stand around the boat, and lift it over while others had a long cordelle with a turn around a tree above, taking up the slack and pulling as much as they could. When the boats were over, they were reloaded and then pushed ahead and poled from there to Fort Winnebago.” — (Daniel Whitney’s Narrative, 1821.)

Mrs. Mary Ann Brevoort Bristol said,”At that time (1824) there was nothing between Fort Howard and Fort Winnebago but Grand Kaukauna where stood one house, occupied by Augustin Grignon where I was invited to attend his daughter’s wedding. She married Ebenezer Childs; quite a large party attended; all came in a large boat called a botteau. The bride was dressed in white muslin; on the table for supper were all kinds of wild meat — bear, deer, muskrat, raccoon, turkey, quail, pigeon, skunk and porcupine with the quills on. Her mother was an Indian woman.” This was no doubt the first marriage of white persons in what is now Outagamie county.

In 1829 Ebenezer Childs was appointed poastmaster at Grand Kakalin, but he resigned after serving one year. — (Wis. Hist. Col., Vol. IV (Reprint.) The first annuity paid the Menominee Indians was paid at Grand Chute about 1829, Augustin Grignon was a captain in the Blackhawk war; he commanded a body of Menominees. In 1824 when Henry S. Baird moved to Green Bay there were only two or three families living at Grand Kaukauna. — (Wis. Hist. Col., Vol IV.)

In 1828 John Y. Smith came from New York and began carpenter work at Kaukauna among the Stockbridge Indians; he built the second frame house and flouring mill in this section.

“About 1830 Augustin Grignon erected buildings and established himself at Grand Butte des Morts and left his place at Kakalin to the care of his sons. His chief attention was given to the Indian trade though he opened a farm as he had done at Kakalin. The natives held him in the utmost reverence; in fact he was the only man in the trade who could ever cope in the least with John Lawe in influence with the Indians. He spent much time in the Indian country and spoke little English. He was noted for his almost princely hospitality. No man, woman or child ever met a frown at his door or went hungry away. He would invariably say, ‘Only let us reach Augustin’s before dark and we shall be happy.’ His house was often crowded at night with travelers to the great inconvenience of himself and family, but the cordial welcome, the bland smile and the bountiful good cheer never failed and all without fee or reward. He died in 1860, aged eighty years.” — (Albert G. Ellis’ Recollections. )

“At the Great Kakalin, about twenty miles up Fox river, a missionary establishment succeeded in bringing many of the Menominees in clear land, build comfortable cabins and practice the art of husbandry. Some half-breeds occasionally preferred a hut to a wigwam and raised a little corn and a few potatoes. With these exceptions this interesting tribe existed in a state of worse than savage wretchedness.” — (Col. Charles Whittlesey, 1832; he made a trip up the Fox river.)

“Having engaged Hamilton Arndt as a guide, we mounted and pushed up the river to Depere where we crossed in a scow and followed an Indian trail up the river to the Grand Kaukalo as it was called, where we staid over night at Augustin Grignon’s, a very comfortable place. Here we found the two sons, very pleasant and agreeable young men, having English educations.” — (Henry Merrell, 1834, Wis. Hist. Cols., Vol. VII.)

At Kaukauna before 1835 were Augustin Grignon, Charles A. Grignon, Paul Ducharme, Jacques Paullier, Paul Beaulieu and Rev. T. J. Van den Broek. Ephriam St. Louis arrived in 1835 and settled at Petite Chute. A schoolhouse, the first, was built near Little Chute in 1844. In 1840 Mr. St. Louis cut a road from that place to what is now Appleton. In 1848 Holland emigrants began to arrive. In 1852 Mr. St. Louis operated the first threshing machine in the town.

George W. Lawe was born at Green Bay in 1810. He said that in 1823 the Stockbridge and Munsee Indians occupied the south side of Fox river at Kaukauna. In that year the Episcopal mission was established among them with Rev. Mr. Cadle in charge. The Indians carried on farming, raising large quantities of corn, potatoes and small grain. Rev. Jesse Miner succeeded Rev. Cadle, but died soon. His grave was on the farm of Mr. Brill and was marked by a stone slab. In 1835 Rev. Vanden Broek arrived and established a Catholic mission at Little Chute among the Menominees. In 1835 a treaty was held at the Cedars, there being present 4,000 Menominees, Chippewas and Winnebagos. A large tract of land in Brown, Oconto, Outagamie, Winnebago, Fond du Lac and other counties was secured by the government. In 1839 Mr. Lawe moved his family from Green Bay to Kaukauna, where he resided almost continuously down to 1879. When he arrived he found the following families residing at Kaukauna: Charles A. Grignon, Ephriam St. Louis, James Porlier, Joseph Lamure, Paul H. Beaulieu and a few Germans. Mr. Beaulieu had a saw-mill and grist-mill in operation on the south side of the river. In 1843 Mr. Lawe as Indian agent under President Harrison, moved the Indians from Little Chute to Lake Poygan; in 1850 they were removed to the Reshene reservation in Shawano county. About 1847 Rev. Vanden Broek visited Holland and upon his return was followed by many immigrants among whom were Jacob Appleman, C. A. Hamer, Martin Gerrits, Merman Johnson, Theodore Johnson, J. C. Van Niel and Fred Spiel. Captain Joseph Houle who died recently at the residence of his son, was said to have been 113 years old. Mr. Lawe recollected him in 1815 as a gray headed man at Green Bay. “In the year 1825 my father (Mr. Lawe’s) got short of certain goods to carry on the Indian trade and sent Joseph Houle in the month of January to Mackinac after a supply. He started with a horse and sleigh alone upon the ice and reached Mackinac in safety and safely returned. This is the first instance of which there is any record of a white man making the trip in that way and at that time of year. Again in the winter of 1826-7 he was sent from Green Bay to Fort Crawford or Prairie du Chien with a load of goods for Daniel Whitney, making his way through the woods and across the prairie with nothing to guide him but the trail of the Indians. He is supposed to have been the first white man to make this trip across the country.” — (George W. Lawe in Crescent, March 1, 1879.)

The act approved March 8, 1839, provided as follows: “Townships nineteen, twenty, twenty-one and twenty-two in ranges 18 and 19 shall be a separate town by the name of Kakalin, and the elections in said town shall be holden in Grignon’s trading-house.

The district of country as follows, to-wit: Surveyed townships 91 and 22, ranges 18 and 19; and township 21, ranges 20 and 21, south and east of Fox river in the county of Brown; and the district of country on the west and north of said river, bounded as follows, to-wit: On the west by the range line extending north between ranges 17 and 18 east, on the north line to the grant to Eleazer Williams extending northwestwardly until it intersects said range, line last mentioned and on the east and south by the Fox river, are herby declared to be and constituted the town of Kaukaulin in said county.” Approved April 1, 1843.

The act of January, 1847, divided the town of Grand Kaukaulin and set off the following as the town of Lawrence: Township 22, range 19 and the “Williams grant” of land so called and all that part of the town of Depere in township 22, range 20 and township 23, range 20 and township 23, range 19.

In 1845 John Lawe, with nearly $9,000 in silver in a wooden chest went with four men in a Mackinaw boat from Poyagan down Fox river past Oshkosh, through Lake Winnebago, down the lower Fox, running the rapids between Little Butte and Depere during the night.

“A smart ride of half an hour brought us to the Kaukaulin, of which place everybody knows all about, or ought to know, long since — famed for beauty, prominence and bountiful hospitality. The progress of the improvement here will soon set the proprietors at work upon the foundation of a town — indeed I was shown a very handsomely drawn plat of the town of Kau-ka-na. I have always regarded the point as one of the very best on the river and present appearances seem to confirm that opinion.”-(Ed. Cor. Green Bay Advocate, September 6, 1849.)

“Kaukalin. — We are told that this beautiful place is beginning to improve rapidly. Since a town plat has been laid out numbers of lots have been sold and preparations are making for building to a considerable extent. A dam has been constructed, a new mill commenced and very soon the saw and the hopper will add their music to the pleasant song of the rapids. A new tavern is now opened and at the lower landing the Messrs Whitney have constructed a large stone warehouse. Before this place begins to occupy much attention in print, we hope something will be settled in the spelling of its name. Awful as it is to one not acquainted with the twists and turns of Western names, it is rendered doubly so to the novice by the various phases which it takes with the various pens which put it upon paper. Kakalin, Kackaloo, Cacolin, Cackalo and the innumerable other ways, all suggestive of the cackling of a setting hen, are some of the ways in which it is spelt. We have headed this article with the name as spelt commonly, but believe it is not correct. Those who ought to know about such matters say that the Indian signification of the name is ‘the place where the fish stop,’ and the above singular spelling of it is only adopted to the French pronunciation. Kaukau, it is said, means fish; na pronounced naw signifies in the connection a stopping place, so that if the name is spelt Kaukauna giving the last a the long accent, it will be correct.” — (Green Bay Advocate, August 8, 1850.)

At Kaukauna in about 1850 were George W. Lawe, Charles A. Grignon, Alexander Grignon, David P. Meade, Alfred Aspinwall. Reuben Donit, George N. Koutz, Peter Martin, Patrick Hunt and Lemuel Brothers, and near Kaukauna were Ephraim St. Louis, G. W. Kelso, Truman Tuttle, Thomas Armstrong, M. B. Lemento, William H. Spoin, who was a surveyor, Rettete Grignon, Ben I. Craft, Mr. Rogers, Mr. Kavanaugh, B. B. Murch, Obed Boynton, Hector McKay, Alexander Ross, John Samuel, Seth Childs, William Veritz.

The act of February 26, 1851, authorized Theodore Van Den Broek, Ephraim St. Louis and M. P. Caulfield to build a bridge across Fox river “at some convenient point on the rapids at Little Chute in the county of Brown,” and in March George W. Lawe, David P. Meade and Clark Knight were authorized to build one across the Fox at Grand Kaukalin.

The act of March 11, 1851, changed the name of the town of Grand Kaukalin in Brown county to Kaukauna.

The Crescent of April 26, 1862, announced the death of Charles A. Grignon, one of Wisconsin’s pioneers. He died in Kaukauna on the 18th inst., after an illness of only twenty-four hours. His father was the first settler of the county.

Street scene, Appleton

In the summer of 1861 a new and large flouring mill was erected at Kaukauna by Cord & Gray, the building was 35×45 feet, four stories high, and had two run of stone.

In the early days Peter Martin kept tavern at the old Kaukauna village; later the same spot was occupied by a hotel and owned by Mr. Naylor. The famous sulphur spring was under the bluff near the house. It was so strong that it was humorously stated to come from Beelzebub’s factory.

A new stave factory at Kaukauna owned by Mr. Nichols was totally destroyed by fire in June, 1868. There was little or no insurance. The owner immediately began rebuilding, even before the embers were dead.

In 1870 Mr. Reith kept a hotel in Kaukauna. Nichols & Co..conducted a stave factory, they had invested about $20,000; their capacity was 18,000 staves and 16,000 heads finished ready for hoops. John Stovekin conducted a grist-mill there; it was a building three stories high and had two run of stone; the capital invested represented $12,000. Deidrich conducted a saw-mill there which had a capacity of 30,000 feet in twenty-four hours. Reuter Brothers owned a spoke factory, and had invested $10,000. An immense business was done at this time in Kaukauna in hard wood logs and railroad ties; 20,000 ties were marketed there in the winter of 1868-70, all made by the woodman’s ax. Late in February there were piled up there about 1,000,000 feet of white-oak and maple logs. Charles Green was railroad and express agent at Kaukauna. Mr. Hunt conducted a large store. The school was attended by bout 40 children and was taught by Miss Bailey. The Roman Catholics had the foundation laid for a large church. The boats of the Lake and River Transportation Company were laid up at Kaukauna during the winter.

The water power at Kaukauna was excellent. Several important factories were there in 1870. An ax-handle factory was planned in 1870 to be started soon. Some eight or ten new buildings were in process of erection in July. Captain Edwards invested in the river islands as well as in other neighboring property.

The paper mill was built at Kaukauna in 1873-4; the main building was 50×50 feet three stories high; machine room 26×80 feet: it was built under the supervision of John Stovekin; three water wheels were used, the steam boiler had about 70 horse power; four boiling tubs were kept employed all the time, in sections of two.

By February, 1874, the Kaukauna and Little Chute swing bridges had been let to contractors. The old bridges had been a serious burden to the towns and very expensive. Kaukauna town at this time had the following bridges: Two canal swing bridges; three river bridges; 14 Appleton creek bridges and three bridges on the old plank road; besides there were many culverts and bridges over small streams; the town had 13 road districts.

Kaukauna town grew rapidly after the settlement of the land difficulties which kept many from locating there. It was an attractive spot and in 1873 was growing rapidly.

In 1873 Deacon Brewster and Lobieski Shawvan, a University student, started a Sunday school at Kaukauna. In March, 1874, a Congregational mission church was organized there, over which Rev. Mr. Williams became pastor; also over a chapel in Freedom; he remained about a year and eight months. In March, 1877, Revs. Doe, Little and Gale induced Deacon Jackson Tibbits of Appleton, to go regularly and hold religious services at Kaukauna and he was duly licensed to preach. During the succeeding fall he urged the members to erect a church and they began to raise funds and were assisted by all the citizens — the Catholics and Lutherans helping. The result was a fine church which was dedicated October 6, 1878, by Rev. F. B. Doe in an eloquent sermon. The sum of $215 was raised, which was almost sufficient to pay the remaining church debt.

In December, 1873, the town of Kaukauna voted to raise $3,000 to rebuild the bridges at Little Chute and Kaukauna. Buchanan was interested in these bridges and was just as prompt in raising the means and doing the work.

In 1874 the town of Kaukauna was authorized by the legislature to borrow on the credit of the town a sum not exceeding $5,000 for the purpose of building and repairing bridges. A tax was provided to meet the bonds and interest.

Otto Runte was merchant at Kaukauna in November, 1875; Rademacher & Eiting conducted a meat market; Tom, Dick and Harry had gone to the pineries; the Smith boys shot and killed a deer five years old; Mr. Bautermore leased the Mundinger hotel property; J. Stovekin & Co., hired several teams to haul straw to his paper mill; Konrad’s Hall was a popular resort for dancing parties; Weinfeldt shipped car loads of sheep to market; Hilgenberg had a store there; Frambaugh & Co., conducted a dry goods store; Supple’s boot and shoe store was burned.

Mike Rademacher kept the National House at Kaukauna in 1875; Albert Greves was tinsmith; the Canada thistle grew in abundance on the streets of Kaukauna at this time. John Hunt was formerly a merchant at Kaukauna; the cranberry crop was a failure. Rev E. Hackel, pastor at Buchanan and Kaukauna, visited Europe; Dr. O. G. Lord conducted a drug store.

H. B. Berendsen conducted a meat shop at Kaukauna early in 1876; John Kavanaugh was a blacksmith.

At Kaukauna in 1875 were Reuter & Bros., Hub and Spoke factory; Stovekin’s sawmill, Fred Mundinger’s hotel; Colonel Kidder, U. S. engineer in charge of the public works; Hannah Deidrick an old settler of Kaukauna, died at this time: the new and fine drawbridge was going up.

In the summer and fall of 1875, Day & Call, contractors, had at work on the improvements at Kaukauna, from 150 to 400 men. The dam was built by Knapp & Gillan and was 14 feet wide and 580 feet long. John Stovekin was making in September three tons of straw paper per day. At his saw mill he was turning out large quantities of lumber for the dams at Little Chute and Cedars; he made large quantities of oak felloes. John P. Deitrich rebuilt the bridge from the island to the Buchanan shore. At this time the town was erecting a new schoolhouse with tower and bell, all to cost $2,000. George W. Lawe’s park of about four acres was a popular resort.

The Good Templar’s lodge at Kaukauna numbered about 50 members late in 1876.

Captain Houle was born in 1767 and died in 1879, in Kaukauna, so it was alleged. Madame Leurieux, the mother of William the king of the town of Buchanan, said the captain was an old man when she was a girl. She was now about 90. He was about 113 years old. Lady Angeline Bergeon was very old also; she recently died aged 93 years.

Mr. Stovekin’s new flouring mill at Kaukauna was almost ready in November, 1878.

John Stovekin’s flour mill was burned in 1871 and the next year the Frambach and Stovekin paper mill was started. The Bank of Kaukauna was founded in 1878 by Henry Hewitt, Jr., William P. Hewitt and P. D. Norton. In 1881 they sold out to Peter and Alexander L. Reuter who did a private banking business under the name of Reuter Brothers. In 1883 they incorproated under the state with a capital of $30,000; Peter Reuter was the first president.

The new Congregational church in Kaukauna was dedicated in October, 1878; the sermon being delivered to a goodly audience by Rev. Mr. Doe. Previous to this date Deacon Tibbits of Appleton had cared for the society for some time. In July, 1878, Ward Patterson was instantly killed by the bursting of a whirling stone in Frambach & Stovekin’s paper mill.

In the village school September 1, 1879, there were enrolled 90 pupils and the average attendance was 53.4. A few weeks later 25 withdrew in order to attend the German school which had been reorganized. On October 1 there were enrolled 65, with an average attendance of 45.7. In February, 1880, Jeanne Scott was teacher of the primary department and Charles D. Conkey of the grammar department. About this time 20 pupils withdrew and joined the Catholic parochial school.

In May, 1880, Bishop Krautbauer of Green Bay, assisted by six clergymen, administered the sacrament of confirmation to about 80 persons at the Catholic church in Kaukauna. A long procession received the bishop at the depot and escorted him to the church, which was beautifully decorated. Splendid music graced the occasion. The ceremonies were solemn and impressive in the extreme. The exercises of the day closed with a stirring temperance appeal from Father O’Mally of Oshkosh.

The Kaukauna Water Power Company was incorporated in 1880 by H. G. H. Reed, J. P. C. Cottrill and A. L. Cary, the so-called traffic committee of the Milwaukee, Lake Shore & Western Railroad Company.

On September 17, 1880, the first number of the Kaukauna Times was issued. There was quite a contest to see who should get the first copy from the press. Many afterward claimed they had it. This was the first newspaper issued at Kaukauna. It was issued by Hopkins & Gates. It was devoted to the interests of Kaukauna and Altamaha. The Appleton Daily Post made its first appearance in September, 1880.

It was in 1880 that a new era opened bright for Kaukauna. The Chicago and Northwestern Railroad arrived in 1862; and ten years later the Milwaukee, Lake Shore and Western came. The Lake Shore officials launched the first great boom in 1880 when they located there their shops.

The Meade-Edwards water power was well in hand by 1881. The big paper and pulp mill of Col. Frambach was in operation. So was the Phillips grist-mill; but both were burned in August entailing an estimated loss of $80,000. The Bank of Kaukauna was in operation this year and before by Hewitt Brothers and a building was erected at Wisconsin avenue and Canal street. The Kaukauna Wood Paper and Pulp Company and the Kilso Paper & Pulp Company were carrying on a large business. At this time immense improvement was being made in the water power. M. M. B. was postmaster with office on the south side. The Lake Shore Traffic Company was presumed to be the same as the Kaukauna Water Power Company. The Kaukauna Times was established in September, 1880, by Hopkins & Cates. In 1881 Mr. Hopkins died and H. A. stone became connected with the sheet. In 1882 E. C. Bidwell secured an interest, but in 1887 it passed to C. E. Raught & Company. The famous Meade-Edwards water power finally passed to the Green Bay & Mississippi Canal Company. The location of the Lake Shore shops here insured the great improvement of the village. Russell Brothers’ flour mill began operation in 1880. John Lawe joined Charles Bidwell on the Times in 1884: at this time the name was Kaukauna and Ledyard Times. In August, 1883, there was a break of 200 feet at Little Kaukauna, but the damage was soon repaired. There was a $10,000 fire in December this year.

On June 20, 1884, thirty-eight citizens of Ledyard petitioned the court for a village charter; these petitioners represented a population of 934. The petition was granted. There were about 335 voters in Ledyard at this time, but only 235 were polled at the election of officers. The first officers were as follows: John Hickey, president; A. Mill, A. Kern, C. A. Walker, A. Finegan, T. M. Solar and John Haupt, trustees; John Dietzler, clerk. The city embraced about 746 acres and was divided into two wards. Various committees were appointed, a seal was adopted, licenses were granted, school children were ordered vaccinated and the village board borrowed a small sum from the bank to pay current expenses. The thirty-eight names signed to the petition were as follows: W. T. Abers, F. M. Charlesworth, C. G. Roehr, M. D., H. J. Mulholland, L. M. Solar, R. Zeismer, Nick Gerend, P. J. Hayes, Max Rahr, A. A. Kern, T. H. Taylor, Louis Kuhn, John Hoberg, J. M. Delaney, Peter Nettlekoven, Finnegan Bros., L. Lindover, Julius Kuehn, Albert Gates, J. H. Hayes, Henry Webb, John Lukow, A. E. Parton, H. Baumgartner, Jacob Ruppert, August Mill, J. Kutley, Louis Gauther, C. Reible, Anton Galmbacher, Frank Schreiner, Wm. Hall, J. Daily, George Kromer, John J. Millbach, Matthias Yungling, Peter Hurtenbach, M. Donahue.

State of Wisconsin, circuit court, Outagamie county, in the matter of application to incorporate Ledyard, now come the undersigned residents of the territory and oppose said application and earnestly remonstrate against granting the order, basing their opposition and remonstrance on the following grounds. First, that the population is largely transient, there being not to exceed fifty families having a fixed home and habitation therein. Second, that the business and industrial interests are mostly controlled by one corporation and while it is presumed the interest referred to is now, and forever will be, in harmony with the interests of the people, yet it is believed to be unwise to place the controlling power over a young and growing community within the grasp of a foreign corporation. Third, that the village of Kaukauna, so called, though not incorporated, is situated near and immediately joins upon the territory proposed to be incorporated; that in fact the two places and the people thereof are inseparably linked together, their interests common, and that to separate them by incorporating one, would be a great detriment to both, create a distructive rivalry and neutralize the energies of both. Fourth: That incorporation would heavily increase the cost of government. Fifth: That if incorporation is advisable in any case, by joining the two in incorporation the expense of government would be borne by a larger amount of assessable property, avoiding heavily increased taxation. Sixth: That the assessed valuation of the proposed corporation does not exceed $45,000. Seventh: That the interests of said territory do not demand any such change. Seventy-nine signatures were attached to this remonstrance.

“The legislature on Wednesday passed an act incorporating the villages of Ledyard and Kaukauna as one city. This news was received with delight and celebrated with enthusiasm by the people on both sides of the river. Wednesday evening cannon were fired, whistles and bells were sounded, speeches were made, all testifying to the delight of the people in the wise and timely movement now happily consumated. The corporate name of the united villages will be the city of Kaukauna. The act will be effective March 25 and officers will be elected ten days later.” — (Post, March 5, 1885.)

The act of March 7, 1885, incorporated the city of Kaukauna. “All that district of country included within the following boundaries shall comprise said city and shall be divided into five wards as follows: Named respectively, First ward, Second ward, Third ward, Fourth ward and Fifth ward. For Municipal or other purposes the First and Second wards shall be known as North Kaukauna and the Third, Fourth and Fifth wards shall be known as South Kaukauna, the center line of the main channel of Fox river shall constitute the dividing line: Commencing at the point of the intersection of the east and west center line of section 18, town 21 north, range 19 east, with the northwest line of private claim 33; thence south 40 degrees east, along said northwest line of said private claim 33 to the north bank of Fox river; thence in a southwesterly direction across said Fox river to the northeast corner of lot 1 in fractional section 1, on the south bank of said Fox river in town 21 north, range 18 east; thence due south 57.17 chains to the quarter post on the southeast corner of said lot 1, fractional section 21; thence due west 50.98 chains to the east line of lot 1, fractional section 22; thence south 10.6 chains to the southeast corner of said lot 1, fractional section 22; thence due west 32.23 chains to the southwest corner of lot 5, fractional section 22; thence north 11.9 chains to the southeast corner of lot 6, fractional section 22; thence due west 12.31 chains to the southwest corner of lot 7, fractional section 22; thence due north to the center of the highway known as the Green Bay and Menasha plank road; thence south 60 degrees west along the center of said highway 14.59 chains to the southwest corner of lot 1, fractional section 23; thence north 53.24 chains to the northwest corner of lot I, fractional section 23 on the south bank of Fox river; thence north along said north and south center line of sections 23 and 14 in said town and range to the center post in section 14; thence due east across private claims 1, 35, 34 and 33 to the place of beginning.

It was provided that the officers of Kaukauna should consist of mayor, two aldermen from each ward, one supervisor from each ward to serve as a member of the county board; clerk, assessor, treasurer, attorney, two marshals, one for each North and South Kaukauna; two street commissioners, one fire chief, two justices, five constables, etc. The city was divided into two election precincts, corresponding to the two sides. The mayor, clerk, assessor, treasurer and justices of the peace were to be elected at large; the aldermen, supervisors and constables by the wards; and all others were to be appointed by the council. Elections were ordered held the first Tuesday of April in each year. Ample provision for the complete organizzation and conduct of the city was made. A fire department was proposed. The city was allowed to use the county jail until other provision could be made. The city was constituted two road districts, one on each side of the river. The towns of Kaukauna and Buchanan could hold their town meetings within the limits of the city of Kaukauna. South Kaukauna succeeded to all the money, property, duties, liabilities, obligations, etc., of the village of Ledyard. “The officers of the city of Kaukauna at present or in the future are hereby restrained and restricted for the period of ten years, i. e., the year of our Lord, 1895, to lay out a highway, or to build a bridge over the south channel of the Fox River below the bridges now constructed over said Fox River in the said city of Kaukauna, and this section shall not be repealed, amended, altered or modified within the term of ten years from the passage of this act.”

It was further provided that the plats of the village of Kaukauna and the additions thereto previously executed and recorded, should be the plats of the city of Kaukauna, and the land not yet platted could be described as lots and blocks. After March 25, 1885, the city of Kaukauna was wholly separated from the town of Kaukauna and the town of Buchanan. The common schools were to continue under the control and supervision of the school district boards the same as before. The town clerks of Kaukauna and Buchanan were to apportion the school fund as before. The engine house, council rooms and city lock-up were located in the Fifth ward.

The act thus creating the city of Kaukauna was presented to the governor for his signature, was not returned by him duly signed within the time prescribed by law, and hence became a law without his approval.

At the time of the incorporation of Ledyard there were many residents who felt that the best interests of the community would be better conserved by a union of the north side with the south side. Others thought such union impractical. This feeling arose, no doubt, from the wide river which made close communication between the villages difficult, and up to that period each had ignored the existence of the other or had viewed each other with more or less envy. About the time of Ledyard’s organization, north side business men remarked to men from the south side, “Why should there be two corporations here, each at rivalry with the other, when by a union of the two villages a vigorous municipal growth might be effected?” The reply was, “There is no reason against such a union, but many in favor of it.” It was about this time that the roller skating craze swept over the county and a large skating rink was built by D. J. Brothers, Tom Solar, John Shaw, Frank Hayes and Hugo Mills, and to make it readily accessible to both villages it was built on the island. Intimate association and acquaintance here effected a social union and when a mass meeting was held in the rink to discuss the conditions, great enthusiasm was manifest. When an election was held to determine the question of incorporating all as one city the sentiment was practically unanimous in its favor.

On April 14, 1885, the first meeting of the common council of the city of Kaukauna was held at Duggans’ Hall, pursuant to the call of his honor, Mayor Frambach. Steele, Vandenberg, Sullivan, Langlois, Mitchell, Walker, Kribs, Beck, McCarty and Jansen were aldermen. The first year was of necessity a year of beginnings, and in only a slightly lesser degree one of accomplishment. Ordinances were framed and passed. Streets, alleys, sidewalks, drainage, fire and police protection received prompt attention, each involving a thousand details.

A special road tax of ten mills on the dollar was levied. On September 30 an election was held “to determine whether $20,000 in bonds should be issued for building and furnishing an engine house, council chamber and city lock-up ($3,000); purchasing a fire engine and apparatus ($4,300)”; the remainder to be used for grading, graveling, draining, filling, opening and otherwise improving the streets and alleys of the city. Ten bonds were to be issued, the first to be paid ten years from date of issue, and one each year thereafter until all were paid. Of 400 votes cast, 272 favored the bond issue and 128 were opposed. On October 24, a proposition by B. L. Gilmore to take $10,000 bonds, drawing six per cent interest, and principal payable at Kaukauna, at one and one-eighth per cent. premium, was accepted, and the first five bonds were ordered issued November 3. On the same date the council approved the bill of M. Weyenberg for sewer construction. On November 23, they let the contract for building six fire cisterns and on January 5, 1886; directed the purchase of hook and ladder apparatus and instructed the chairman of the finance committee to negotiate the sale of two more bonds of $2,000 each.

Doctors Connors, Tanner and Lord were candidates for city physician; the former winning. The Times was made the official paper of the city. The liquor license was fixed at $200. It was decided to buy a fire engine and to borrow $2,000 to meet current expenses. A little later steps to build a council house and fire engine room were taken; this structure was built by T. M. Solar for $2,105, contract price. A poormaster was appointed and cisterns for the fire department were built in 1888. The total city receipts for the fiscal year 1885-6 were $45,932.02; total expenses, $39,011.80; on hand April, 1886, $6,920.22. Retail liquor licenses brought $4,735.52. The first seven $2,000; city bonds brought $14,204.83. Mr. Reese became mayor in 1886 and Dr. Tanner city physician. A stone crusher was bought this year and extensive grading and macadamizing were commenced; a lock-up was provided. Dr. Tanner suppressed many nuisances in the city this year and the next; he made 36 visits to poor persons and wrote for them 20 prescriptions. In 1887 Peter Reuter became mayor.

In 1849 a school was taught on Oakley street on the north side by Mr. Spayne; two years later a regular schoolhouse was built. Earlier than this school was taught in the old log house near John Brill’s on the south side; and for many years the mission school at Little Chute had been taught.

In 1885, Col. H. A. Frambach and others founded the Manufacturers’ Bank of Kaukauna. The Kaukauna Sun was established in July, 1885, by H. D. Wing and L. A. Cates; the latter was city editor of the Appleton Post. In the spring of 1886 Wing bought out Cates, but in October the concern passed to a stock company. The fire department was fully organized in 1885 and had two divisions; William Klumb was chief. The Island opera house was built for a skating rink in 1884; in 1886 it was fitted up for other entertainments. Electric lights were established in 1890 by the Kaukauna Electric Light Company, which was incorporated for $30,000. About this time an efficient police system was established. The Union Cornet band was organized in 1889 with seventeen members. In 1890 the Driving Park Association secured grounds one mile north, enclosed the same and erected buildings and built a race track.

The Congregational Church on the north side was established in 1876; a few years later one of the same denomination on the south side was founded. The Lutherans began about 1887. In 1885 the Metlodists organized and first met in Odd Fellows hall; their church built the next year, cost $4,000; Rev. W.D. Ames was pastor. A bridge was built across the river and canal in 1881 and another in 1884. The First and Second wards were on the north side and the Third, Fourth and Fifth on the south side.

The Badger Paper Company began operations about 1885; Klein’s flour mill about 1883; Outagamie mill 1887; Ruse paper mill 1888; Kause fibre mill 1889; Thilmany’s paper mill 1890, Shartle paper mill 1890-1; Kaukauna machine works about 1891.

In 1887 John Hoberg bored an artesian well 235 feet deep and secured a good flow of pure water; others followed his example until by 1891 there were nine such wells in the city. In 1889 the city bored a well on each side of the river for the use of the fire department. A depth of 625 feet was reached — down to the Potsdam sandstone. At all times the city has had an excellent supply of Galena limestone. The vast water power at Kaukauna is its chief asset. Really, Kaukauna with its historic importance and its splendid water power should have been the county seat, and would have been but for two circumstances: 1. The lack of enterprise of its citizens in the ’40s and ’50s; 2. The fact that the Methodist Church chose Appleton as the site of Lawrence University, thus giving an immense building boom to that spot.

In 1886, while workmen were excavating to the depth of eight feet on Third street, Kaukauna, they ran upon the ruins of an ancient building of stone. The stones had been polished and laid in walls and showed good workmanship. An immense heap of ashes (about twenty bushels) was discovered near on the same level. Near this was another wall, with stones finely faced and several blackened as if by fire. All this work was found but a foot or two above bed rock. This was understood to mean that the Fox River valley was inhabited by a race of human beings, presumably the so-called mound builders, before the glacial epoch which deposited the surface soil upon all this region.

There was much excitement in 1886-7 at Kaukauna particularly over the reported discovery of valuable coal beds in Buchanan and near Kaukauna. Several companies were formed — Kaukauna Exploring and Coal Mining and Gas Company, Dundas Exploring and Mining Company. A great variety of reports was circulated. About this time a farmer in Freedom while drilling a well struck a large block of nearly pure copper. Coal was found on the Ballard farm.

The Kaukauna Times was issued as a daily during part of 1887, but was suspended in January, 1888, as it did not pay, owing to the death of Mr. Bidwell, who had occupied the editorial chair.

The most important water power transfer ever effected in the Fox River valley was carried out in January, 1887, when the Kaukauna Water Power Company acquired Meade’s interest in Islands 1, 2 and 3, except the platted part; Edward’s Islands; Hunt’s Island No. 2; including nearly all the famous Meade & Edwards power. This purchase was brought about by litigation against the Kaukauna Water Power Company by the Green Bay and Mississippi Canal Company, the Union Pulp Company and the Fox River Paper and Pulp Company, to restrain the former from using any water from Fox River for hydraulic purposes. By the above purchase the Kaukauna Company secured permanent and immensely valuable rights. The price was about $75,000.

George W. Lawe brought suit of ejectment against the city of Kaukauna for occupying two lots at the north end of the bridge claimed by him; his attorneys were Pierce & Moeskes. In the end he won the suit.

During the ’80s Kaukauna was the center of a movement to secure natural gas, oil, coal, artesian water and other natural products. Quantities of nearly all were found. A gas well was bored on Everett Sanders’ farm. Gas was found in the Spaulding well.

Late in the ’80s Kaukauna had three newspapers —TimesSun and Volksbote. In 1889 in a vote on the question of issuing $25,000 or $30,000 bridge bonds, Kaukauna polled 144 votes in favor of the issue and 168 votes against it.

The Thilmany Pulp and Paper Company was established in 1889 by Oscar Thilmany; it was first a ground wood pulp mill and later a paper mill with one machine. Additions were made until now the mill has five machines. It now uses both water and steam power and occupies 300 to 400 feet on the water power. The company now makes thirty tons of paper per day — in specialties, and employs about 190 persons. Its goods are marketed in all parts of the United States. M. A. Wertheimer is president; J. E. Thomas vice-president; C. W. Stribley secretary and treasurer. In 1902, Mr. Thilmany sold out to the present company.

In 1889 the supervision of public instruction in Kaukauna was vested in a board of education consisting of the mayor and the director and clerk of each school district. The city superintendent of schools was ex-officio a member of the board. At this time changes were made in the wards and the city boundaries. Changes were also made in the elective officers. Portions of the towns of Buchanan and Kaukauna were attached to the city of Kaukauna for school purposes, and the Kaukauna school district was declared forever exempt from the provisions of the act creating the office of county superintendent of schools. Since that date the city has erected several excellent public school buildings and one for high school pupils.

In 1891, the works of the Kaukauna Paper Company burned down, entailing a loss of $75,000; it was built as a flour mill and converted into a paper mill. It was burned in 1881. The Y. M. C. A. building was projected in 1892-3 and a structure was erected.

In June, 1893, the two banks at Kaukauna were subjected to a severe run, but both withstood all assaults and paid all money demanded at call.

The American Protective Association had a large and rapid growth at Kaukauna in 1893, when 200 persons became members in a short time. The feeling between them and the Catholics became so bitter as to interfere with business.

Major Simms spoke at Kaukauna on the doctrines of the A. P. A., and his strictures on the Catholics were so severe that a riot resulted. The hall was stoned and an effort was made to do him bodily harm. Mayor Reuter finally ordered the lecture to stop and the crowd to disperse, neither of which was obeyed. The meeting was finally broken up, in disorder. Mr. Simms and his friends barricaded themselves in the hall, which was riddled with stones. The mayor telephoned for the sheriff to send assistance, which was done, and after much effort the mob was dispersed. When Mr. Simms and his friends came out they were followed, but the crowd was stopped at the bridge by the officers. On the south side another mob stoned the Simms party, and Simms himself was injured by a stone The next day he was escorted to the depot by men armed with Winchesters. The act of the mob was everywhere denounced as an interference with the right of free speech.

Some time afterward, while Mr. Simms was on his way to lecture again at Kaukauna, he was arrested, charged with libel against Mayor Reuter, but was released on bail. He came from Oshkosh with 250 followers and a band with the announced determination to speak in the south side Baptist church. The libel suit, it was declared, was instituted to prevent his speaking. There was much feeling over this unfortunate chain of events. The Catholics seemed determined to prevent his attacks on them, and he seemed determined to carry the war into the Catholic districts and was sustained in his course by the State A. P. A. Society. In March, he again spoke, but was not seriously molested. The acts of the Kaukauna city authorities must be condemned as an interference with the rights of free speech.

George W. Lawe died in December, 1895, at his home in Kaukauna. He left a widow, a son, John D., and a daughter, Mrs. Capt. D. J. Brothers. He was called the “Father of Kaukauna.” He was born in Green Bay in 1810; he moved to Kaukauna in 1839; in 1850 he made the plat of Lawesburg one of the three plats of Appleton.

In 1895 the city council by a vote of 7 to 2 passed an ordinance to build water works and to spend as high as $150,000 for the same. The matter was taken into the courts on the ground that the tax would be above the five per cent. legal limit. Judge Goodland sustained the ordinance, but the case was taken to the supreme court.

The Kaukauna Driving Club held excellent races in 1894-5-6. The base ball club was making a name for itself (see elsewhere). Corina de Vivaldi Corencz began suit against the Outagamie Paper Company claiming $300,000 worth of property at Kaukauna under an old claim. She was the niece of George W. Lawe. She did not win.

In 1897 the democrats elected their mayor, clerk and assessor, and the republicans elected their treasurer. McCarty (D.) was elected mayor. Majorities were less than fifty.

In April, 1898, the city election resulted as follows: C. E. Raught (R.) 143 majority; L. C. Wolf (R.) 214 majority; Will Gray (D.) 101 majority; John Merbach (R.) 2 majority.

The fiftieth anniversary of the landing of three shiploads of Hollanders bound for Little Chute was celebrated on a large and imposing scale by that village June 14, 1898. There were parades, religious services and secular addresses. Many from Appleton, Kaukauna and elsewhere were present. The shrine of Father Van den Broek was embowered in flowers.

In 1899 F. M. Charlesworth (R.) was elected mayor; L. C. Wolf (R.) city clerk; William Klumb (R.) treasurer. William Eitung (D.) was elected assessor.

In the celebrated water power case the supreme court decided in 1901 that the water power company should pay the canal company $70,000 for water used unlawfully. Soon after this date the canal company absorbed several large concerns — worth all told over $200,000. In the case of the Electric Light Company against the city the courts decided that the city’s act to annul the contract with the company was illegal. Judge Goodland held that the city need not pay rentals until the company should comply with its contract.

The final judgment of $104,627.36 in one of the famous Kaukauna water power suits was rendered by Judge Goodland in January, 1903 ; it was the suit of B. A. Sands against several companies which eventuated in the suit of the Green Bay & Mississippi Canal Company vs. the Kaukauna Water Power Company. The case was complicated and had been pending for years.

In early times there were on the Grignon plat at Kaukauna about thirty well-defined and good-sized Indian mounds varying in size from ten to thirty feet in diameter and from four to six feet high, nearly all round in form, though a few oval. By 1905 all except six had been dug into and more or less destroyed.

The Kaukauna Commercial Club was organized in March, 1907, to promote the business and commercial interests of the city; its president was J. J. Martens, and its secretary and treasurer W. J. Tesch.

In March, 1910, about one hundred business men and citizens of Kaukauna assembled at the Fox Club, listened to speeches by Messrs. Raught, Hayes, Becker, Delbridge, Tesch, Weisenbach, Towsley and McCarty, and organized a business men’s assocation to conserve the interests of the city particularly with reference to taxation, water power. At this meeting the following posters were displayed: “We like Kaukauna, do you?” “Kaukauna, not South Kaukauna nor North Kaukauna, but just Kaukauna.” “Is Kaukauna Still the Lion of the Fox?” and others.

In December, 1910, the council called a special election to determine whether the city should buy the Kaukauna Gas, Electric Light and Power Company’s plant. About this time the rate commission directed that company to give the city better and proper service.

By a vote of 544 to 52 Kaukauna decided on December 27, 1910, to buy the electric light plant; much interest was taken and shown by the large vote — about 66 per cent of the vote of November, 1910.

Ephraim St. Louis’ daughter, Mary Z., married Peter J. Filiatreau; she was yet living in 1910.

At Brokaw Memorial church in September, 1910, the following officers of the Woman’s Foreign Missionary Society were elected: Mrs. H. S. Cooke, president; Mrs. S. M. Engholdt, secretary; Mrs. Walter Cooper, treasurer. The Epworth League and the Advancement Association were active in 1909-10. Edwin T. O’Brien was editor of the Sun and president of the Democratic club. It was decided in 1910 to buy Klein’s Park on the south side for city purposes; it comprised fourteen acres valued at $4,500. Charles E. Raught, postmaster, resigned in October. The Park and the Nicolet schools were in splendid condition at this time — as thorough and efficient as any in the state. L. P. Bunker was city superintendent in 1910. John H. Roemer of the railroad commission heard the complaint cases here in 1910; this year the city water works commission laid the mains through the streets. The Woman’s Relief Corps and the public library were prominent features this year. The law which forbids a saloon to be conducted within 300 feet of a public school caused trouble in 1911. The present city officers are as follows. Mayor, John Coppes; city clerk, L. C. Wolf; treasurer, R. H. McCarty; assessor, H. Weifenbach; president of the council, Jos. J. Jansen; city attorney, F. M. Wilcox; city physician, Dr. W. N. Nolan; chief of fire department, Henry Schubert, nightwatch, N. S., Jas. McFadden, nightwatch, S. S., John Hiting; street commissioner N. S., Theo Schmaltz; street commissioner, S. S., Geo. Coppes; justice of peace, N. S., N. D. Schwin; justice of peace, S. S., H. J. Mulholland; engineer water works, Wm. Hyland; electrical inspector, Wm. D. Kurz; pound master, F. Reichel; bridge tenders, John Killawee, F. Werner; teamsters, Owen E. Roberts, Henry Rauens; poor master, H. J. Mulholland; sewer committee, Frank Loope, 1912, G. E. Haas, 1913, M. Ristau, 1914; water committee, Jos. J. Jansen, 1912, H. E. Thompson, 1913, H. S. Cooke, 1914; board of aldermen, First ward, Frank A. Kern, T. W. Armstrong, Second ward, J. B. Delbridge, Jos. J. Jansen. Third ward, Jos. Hendricks, B. W. Hayes, Fourth ward, Jos. Lehrer, M. A. Raught, Fifth ward, Otto Mueller, F. J. Hilgenberg; county supervisors, First ward, Herman Pauli, Second ward, Chas. Wendt, Third ward, Jac. Feltes, Fourth ward, J. W. Dougherty, Fifth ward, Fred Reichel.